350MC Working with Photography in Context – Development of Idea

This blog post is dedicated to the continuing adaptation of my Symposium Idea for my 350MC Working with Photography in Context module, over the first two terms of my final year at University (September 2014 – March 2015). Within this post, you’ll therefore be able to find my notes on my original ideas, one-to-one and group tutorials, research (including possible case studies), and developments of my idea.

 


 

Original Idea – “What Makes A Successful Photographic Project?”:

To start off this blog post, I have included my favourite Symposium idea that I thought of over my 2014 summer break. Although I came up with a number of different ideas over the summer holiday (please see PDF’s included below), I was drawn more to this one as I thought it had a lot more potential than the others.

Looking at Previous Students Work – Research for Symposium and Final Major Project

Ideas for Symposium

Research Ideas for Symposium

“What makes a successful photographic project?” (Idea 1 – Links to Landscape project):

  • Topic/theme – What makes a successful photographic project?
  • Discuss what I think makes the most successful photographic project – it’s not about the technique and the photographic skills (although they do help) but it’s about the story behind the piece, the depth of the project, what it means to the photographer, and about creating a powerful response from the viewer (you want the viewer to remember your work and relate to it)
  • Often find that projects with a deeper meaning behind them, that has a deeper meaning to the photographer, means that the photographer has greater determination to creating the perfect project/outcome
  • PASSION
  • Similar to Hollie Woodward’s Symposium: http://vimeo.com/88005152
  • Look at theorists that agree with argument
  • Give examples of successful photographic projects that have a more personal attachment to the photographer

 


 

After returning to university in September 2014, I attended an introductory day dedicated to the 350MC Symposium module. Towards the end of this day (as you may have already seen in another blog post), I had a one-to-one tutorial with lecturer Anthony Luvera where we discussed possible Symposium ideas. The notes from this session can be found below:

One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera – Overarching Themes, Case Studies, and Reading Materials:

In the one-to-one with Anthony Luvera, he wanted to find out what I was interested in as a photographer. Leading with the fact that I want to return to my photographic roots and photograph landscapes for my final piece, I decided to briefly explain the idea behind my final major project and tell him that I was unsure what to talk about for my Symposium.

I should just mention that for my final major project I am planning on attempting to reconnect to my deceased Grandpa (the person who sparked my passion for both photography and landscapes, and, therefore, landscape photography) by revisiting places in the Lake District (and documenting these places) where I shared particular memories with him.

 

Overarching Themes:

After listening to my ideas and my opinions and worries, he suggested that there were two things that I could think about for my overarching theme for the Symposium. These were:

  • Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” (which links to my original idea, “What makes a successful photographic project?”, suggested above)
    • Looking at different types of motivation (for example, my motivation for my final piece is personal)
    • Why different types of motivation can sometimes create more/less successful projects?
  • Cultural Memory of Landscapes
    • Memories that aren’t visible on the landscape but where photographers photograph the landscape in order to tell the story behind it

 

Case Studies:

After mentioning these ideas, he then suggested some photographers work (that could act as possible case studies), which could work with one or both of these ideas. These can be found below, along with some of my thoughts and brief research I conducted on them after the one-to-one tutorial (found in italics):

  • Edward Burtynsky – raising awareness about human impact on the earth
    • This would fit into the “Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” idea as Burtynsky is personally motivated by the idea of raising awareness about human impact on the earth in order to, hopefully, create action and change from his target audience
  • Fay Godwin – photographed the British Countryside in Black & White
    • Fay Godwin’s work could possibly fit into both of the categories (“Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” and “Cultural Memory of Landscapes“)
      • He could fit into “Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” as I could possibly research into his motivation behind why he photographed his landscapes in Black and White
      • Or he could fit into “Cultural Memories of Landscape” as I could research into whether he chose these particular locations as they are associated with different memories – however, he may not have chosen these particular locations in this manner so this would need to be explored further if considering him as a case study
    • With this being said, although his work could possibly fit into both categories, I feel that I would need to look for case studies with a stronger connection to the discussed topic in order to create a more credible paper
  • Edgar Martins – photographed unusual things in the environment
    • Similar to Burtynsky, Edgar Martins photographed unusual things in the environment to raise awareness of them which could relate to the “Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” idea
      • However, although he is raising awareness of unusual structures in the landscape, I am unsure as to the reasons behind Martins raising of awareness for these particular structures (i.e. he is not raising awareness to facilitate change but to just make them known), which would mean that I would need to do further research into him, and his reasons for the raising of awareness, if I choose him as a possible case study
      • With this being said, although his work could possibly fit into this idea, as suggested above, as I am unsure of his genuine intentions and motivation behind the project, I feel that I would need to look for case studies that obviously displayed a stronger connection to the discussed topic in order to create a more credible paper
  • Paul Seawright –  photographed places where people died
    • Paul Seawright would fit into the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” idea as he photographs the landscape where people have died in order to tell the stories and the memories associated with the landscape

 

Reading Materials:

Anthony then suggested that I should start doing some general reading around the overall topic of landscapes to see if I could come up with any more ideas/things to help me for the Symposium. These books included:

  • Photography” by Stephen Bull
  • Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture” by Martia Sturken and Liz Cartwright
  • Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity” by Liz Wells
  • Photography: A Critical Introduction” by Liz Wells

After being so helpful with providing me with resources and helping me to come up with some ideas for my Symposium, to finish off the one-to-one tutorial, Anthony Luvera simply suggested that I try and come up with a theme, decide on my take on the theme, find case studies, and start writing up a reading list.

 


 

Brief Research into the Two Themes from the One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera:

After the one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera, I soon realized that I was very interested in both of the ideas that we came up with in the session. I therefore decided that the next step to take would be to briefly research both of these ideas in order to help me decide on the general Symposium idea so that I could move on to conducting more specific research on my chosen topic.

For this research, I used an online search engine to look for theories and articles on the suggested topics, before reading two of the general photography and landscape books (“Photography: A Critical Introduction” edited by Liz Wells, and “Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity” by Liz Wells) Anthony mentioned in the one-to-one to gain an overview of the topic of landscapes. (Unfortunately, I was unable to acquire the other books he suggested).

Please find below links to specific areas of research I found that might be useful for the suggested ideas:

 

“Motivation Behind Photographic Projects” – Brief Research:

Definitions of Motivation:

Photography Quotes (about Motivation):

Examples of Artists/Photographers and their Motivation:

  • Edward Burtynsky (http://www.edwardburtynsky.com) – his motivation is to raise awareness of human impact on the earth in order to, hopefully, facilitate change

  

“Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Brief Research:

Definition of Cultural Memory:

Found Readings:

  • Landscape And Memory: Cultural Landscapes, Intangible Values And Some Thoughts On Asia” by Ken Taylor
  • Cultural Memories: The Geographical Point of View” edited by Peter Meusburger, Michael Heffernan and Edgar Wunder
  • Landscapes of Memory and Experience” edited by Jan Birksted

Examples of Artists/Photographers looking at “Cultural Memory of Landscapes”:

 


 

Choosing the Symposium Theme – Re-Reading, Looking for Research and Case Studies:

After briefly researching both topics to try and gain a glimpse at the kind of things I will be researching and talking about for my Symposium, I soon found that I was easily more attracted to the second idea: “Cultural Memory of Landscapes“. This is because, not only did I feel that it was a lot easier to research through the number of quality resources that I found, but I also found that I was actually very interested in reading up on the topic and felt that this topic would challenge me as an academic as well as a photographer.

After deciding upon my final idea, I then thought that the next stage would be to look back over the two books I had previously read to gain an overview of the topic of landscapes (“Photography: A Critical Introduction” edited by Liz Wells, and “Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity” by Liz Wells) and see if they provided any relevant information that I could now apply to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” theme. After I had completed this, I then decided to try and find more reading materials on this new theme, to allow me to research it to an extent where I feel comfortable giving my own take on the theme, as well as looking for possible case studies of photographer’s work that could be used in conjunction with the theories looked at within my symposium. (Both “giving my own take on the theme” and “finding case studies” were mentioned in my one-to-one with Anthony Luvera).

Please find below relevant quotes from the two photography and landscape books, that can be applied to the theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes“, as well as a list of readings and photographers that I found:

Photography: A Critical Introduction” edited by Liz Wells (Relevant Quotes):

  • ‘Landscape’ is a cultural construct.” – Page 303
    • Links to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it obviously relates to both landscape and culture
  • “… Many examples of artists exploring particular sites in relation to specific social and personal histories, for instance, returning to explore, remember, and visualise places familiar from childhood.” – Page 310
    • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” theme as it links the idea of culture (by discussing an individuals “social and personal history“) to the idea of personal memory (through the use of the word “remembrance“) and landscapes (through the use of the phrase “particular sites“)

 

Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity” by Liz Wells (Relevant Quotes):

  • “Human action contours the landscape, and stories told give meaning to it.” – Page 19
    • Can relate to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it relates to culture through the use of the phrase “human action“, as well as providing a link between the landscape and the stories/memories associated with it
  • “But, the photograph, in simulating moments from the past, can seem to help us unfold the layers of history. As such it feeds our sense of heritage, which in turn contributes formatively to identity and subjectivity and to collective consciousness.” – Page 53
    • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it discusses culture in terms of “heritage” and “history” whilst also making reference to the idea of memories (through the use of the phrases such as “stimulating moments in the past” (i.e. memory triggers) and “collective consciousness“)
  • “Landscapes – actual, remembered or idealised – feed our sense of belonging to whatever place, region or nation that we view as homeland.” – Page 54
    • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it discusses the relationship between landscape and memory (through the idea of them being “remembered“) as well as looking at the idea of culture through the phrase “region or nation that we view as a homeland
  • “Photographs are about memory – or perhaps about the absence of memory, providing pictures to fill voids, illustrating and sometimes falsifying our collective memory. (Lippard, 1998: 60)” – Page 261
    • Obviously relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it talks about photographs and memory and how they [photographs] can illustrate a “collective” (or cultural) memory
  • “Photographs also contribute to perpetuating myths and memories associated with place.” – Page 262
    • Links to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it looks at how memories are associated with place/landscapes
  • “But, as I shall suggest, photographs can reference, or substitute, through invoking equivalent memories.” – Page 262
    • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it discusses how photographs can evoke or trigger different memories
  • “Photography is often discussed in terms of time, most particularly through the notion that photographs ‘freeze’ a moment in time, referencing something past.” – Page 263
    • Links to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it talks about photography being able to reference something in the past, which is essentially what memories do – they (photographs and memories) are related in terms of this function of looking back
  • “Applied to our experience of land and environment, we might ask whether a picture of a specific seascape, or expanse of land, or canyon, provokes us to recall how it appeared when we last visited and experienced the place, or whether it over-rides recollection.” – Page 263
    • Definitely relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it talks about whether a photograph of a specific landscape “takes us back” to a memory of the place or if this memory is now over-ridden through the introduction to the photograph
  • “Discussion of landscape and memory inevitably implicates an interrelation of space and time as memory deals both in place and in histories.” – Page 288
    • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it discusses the ice of landscapes and memory in relation to “place” (landscapes) and “histories” (culture)
  • “From the point of view of the photographer, photographs do more than simply provoke memories and associations; given the optical unconscious, they may enhance memory and perception. They also act as aide-mémoires; photographs remind us of moments, experiences or details that might otherwise fade. It is often stated that photographs achieve this through freezing moments in time, thereby allowing for extended contemplation of that which is depicted both for those who were present as participants or for those for whom an image indicates something of a scene that might otherwise be differently imagined.” – Page 290
    • Similar to a quote above, obviously relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it talks about memory, but also photography being able to reference something in the past, which is essentially what memories do – they (photographs and memories) are related in terms of this function of looking back
  • “For viewers, photographs of places – which may or may not have been actually visited – operate evocatively through drawing on memories of the sites depicted or of similar sights, as well as more generalised knowledge about places.” – Page 290
    • Links to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it discusses photographs of landscapes and how they can evoke or trigger a memory about this particular place
  • “Artist, Ann Chwatsky made a series of photographs titled ‘WHEN I WAS A GIRL’ (1999– 2001). Each one montages a particular landscape with a statement about childhood experience…” – Page 299
    • Could be a possible case study to look at? – see below under “”Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Photographers (Case Studies)”

 

“Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Readings:

Once I had decided on my final Symposium idea, and re-read through the two books above in order to find relevant quotes for the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” theme, I then thought that it would be a good idea to try and find more reading resources on the topic. Below you can find a list of books and articles that I found that I thought would be useful for my research:

Previously Found Articles and Books:

  • Landscape And Memory: Cultural Landscapes, Intangible Values And Some Thoughts On Asia” by Ken Taylor
  • Cultural Memories: The Geographical Point of View” edited by Peter Meusburger, Michael Heffernan and Edgar Wunde
  • Landscapes of Memory and Experience” edited by Jan Birksted

 

Newly Found Articles and Books:

  • Landscape, Theory” New York, NY : Lustrum Press c1980
  • Landscape Within: Insights And Inspirations For Photographers” by David Ward
  • Photography and Landscape” by Rod Giblett and Juha Tolonen
  • Landscape Photography” by Lyle Trusty
  • Connecting With The Creator: A Landscape Photographer Discovers A Spiritual Dimension To Photography, Which Can Create A Sanctuary Where People Feel At Peace(Critical Essay)” by Ken Duncan
  • Finding Inspiration In Ordinary Landscape” by Denis Gionet
  • Landscape and Memory” by Simon Schama

 

“Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Photographers (Case Studies):

After I had found these new reading resources that I thought discussed/related to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” theme, I then decided to try and search for possible case studies of photographer’s work that could be used in conjunction with the theories looked at within my symposium. Below you can find a list of photographers that I found that I thought could apply to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes“, as well as how they relate to the theme:

  • Paul Seawright (http://www.paulseawright.com) (as suggested by Anthony Luvera in the previous one-to-one tutorial) – looked at the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” by photographing places where people died (or that held a collective/cultural history) in order to tell the stories and the memories associated with the landscape
    • After doing brief research into his work, I noticed that the main projects that looked at this idea of  “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” included “Hidden“, “Oubiler“, and “The Missing
    • Hidden” – Commissioned by the Imperial War Museum, London, Seawright created this piece of work as a response to the Afghanistan war in 2002 and includes photographs of minefields and battle-sites as a way of acknowledging and telling the stories of the hidden conflicts
      • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as he photographs landscapes from an Asian culture as a way of telling the cultural stories (and the memories) of the conflicts, that are associated with these landscape
    • Oubiler” – Oublier is the term used to describe a place of forgetting. In this project, Seawright explored the collective history and memory of a city (including what is remembered and what is forgotten from a countries conflicted history) by photographing the attics of the cities public buildings
      • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as he explores a collective/cultural history and memory of a city by photographing urban landscapes (attics) associated with these histories and memories
    • The Missing” – Seawright examines the disappearance of individuals from society in Rotterdam by photographing the landscape or the “peripheral world” where these missing individuals once existed
      • Relates to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as he photographs landscapes from a European culture as a way  of telling the stories (and the memories) of the missing, that are associated with these landscape

 

  • Ann Chwatsky (http://annchwatskyphoto.com) – (found in Liz Wells “Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity“) deviates from the idea of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” and instead focuses on personal memory and landscapes within her project “When I Was A Girl
    • Chwatsky uses landscapes (as well as other photographic subjects and materials) as an expressive tool within the creation of digital photomontages in order to portray particular, personal childhood memories
    • Although Chwatsky deviates from the idea of “Cultural Memory” the landscapes she uses within her photomontages are from numerous different cultures (and are also landscapes that she is familiar with), in order to allow this particular project to be more universally understood by a number of culturally diverse viewers

 

Although I seem to have been able to come up with a number of reading resources, as you can see I have struggled to find photographers that look at this particular theme. I have therefore decided that I am going to ask for another one-to-one with Anthony Luvera in order to discuss with him the readings that I have found and whether he can suggest more appropriate readings and any photographers that I can use as case studies.

 


 

Quick, Second One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera – “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” Photographers and Books:

On Tuesday 7th October 2014, I managed to have a very quick one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera where he supplied me with names of photographers/books to look at that had something to do with the topic of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes“. These can be found below:

(Please note, bold question marks are used to indicate the fact that I was only given the name of the theorist and so, through individual research, decided to look at these books based solely on their title and contents)

Photographer/Case Study:

David Farrell’s “Innocent Landscapes (photographer/case study)

 

Books:

  • “Imagined Communities” by Benedict Anderson
  • “Theatres of Memory Vol. 1, Past and Present in Contemporary Culture”? by Raphael Samuel
  • “Questions of Cultural Identity”by Stuart Hall

Course mate Rachael Bint also overheard the quick one-to-one tutorial I had with Anthony and suggested that I looked at:

  • “A Dream of England (Photography: Critical Views)” by John Taylor

 


 

Third One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera – Mish-Mash of Specific Ideas and Feedback:

On Tuesday 14th October 2014, I had my third one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera where we discussed some more specific ideas for my generalized “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” Symposium idea. In this session I pitched some of the ideas that I had flying around in my head as a way of making my topic more specific and gained feedback on them. Below you can find my mish-mash of ideas along with the response I got from Anthony:

 

Mish-Mash of Specific “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” Ideas:

  • Perhaps include an image of a landscape within my presentation and ask the audience to consider it
    • Go on to talk about the fact that this landscape represents my own personal memory, and even though the audience may not have visited the place, they can still draw on their own memories through what is shown in the photograph
  • Include definitions of key words
  • Is there a difference between history and memory? How are they related?
  • Sentimental and Romantic
    • Landscapes are seen as romantic due to the fact that they were used in the Romanticism era within art
    • Memories are sentimental
    • Therefore they are related
  • Do we associate certain memories with the landscape we acquired them in?
    • If so, can the memories be seen as more positive than the reality of the event due to the romanticism that the landscape portrays?

 

Anthony’s Feedback:

  • He think’s it’s good that I’ve started thinking about different ways to make my presentation stand out from the rest, but I shouldn’t focus on that at this point in time
  • Need to distinguish whether I am looking at landscapes or places as it sounds like I am saying that landscapes are ‘places’ and not ‘views’
  • It’s definitely key to include definitions of key words within the presentation – especially if they’re words that not a lot of the audience are familiar with
  • Need to be careful on how I talk about memories as being sentimental – people have negative memories that aren’t sentimental so I will need to distinguish the difference if I am to speak about this
  • The last point took a little bit of explaining to do as I wasn’t too sure on how to put it across
  • However, all of what I have mentioned are broad ideas that are loosely interconnected in some way
  • I’m also using large terminology (such as “Romanticism”) which I will need to define but I don’t want to go into too much depth about art’s history
  • However, looking at case studies and how they relate/agree with my theories will help in creating a specific theme – these theories also need to come from different contexts; for example, a painter, contemporary photographer, etc. all looking at landscapes/places
  • Using Liz Wells’ “Land Matters: Landscape Photography, Culture and Identity” book, look at her bibliography to gain more reading materials to add to my reading list
  • I’m essentially looking at the (cultural) narrative of landscapes
  • As well as looking at David Farrell’s “Innocent Landscapes, would suggest looking at Tom Hunter

 


 

Brief Research into Suggested Case Study, Tom Hunter, from the Third One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera:

Following the third one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera, I decided to conduct some brief research surrounding the suggested photographer/case study, Tom Hunter. This included looking at each of his projects and distinguishing which ones I felt related greater to the idea of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes”. These, more relevant projects can be found below, along with some of my thoughts on them:

http://www.tomhunter.org/gallery/

Life and Death in Hackney“?

  • This project focuses on the post industrial landscape in Hackney before the 2012 Olympics arrived in London. The images he created show inspiration of Pre-raphaelite paintings which provide a sense of narrative and beauty to the overlooked place
    • Although this project focuses primarily on an industrial landscape, I don’t think that it necessarily fits into the “cultural memory” aspect as it is simply documenting what the landscape was like before the Olympics
      • However, this in itself could spark memories from original residents and so could possibly, loosely relate to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” idea – through the fact that the present culture (the residents) are able to recollect different memories through their association with the past landscape that was photographed
    • As the photographs show inspiration of Pre-raphaelite paintings, this could possibly relate to the idea of the artistic movement of “Romanticism” that I discussed above in my one-to-one with Anthony
      • However, I am not entirely certain of that so I would need to research further into this type of painting if I am to continue down this historical art route
Life and Death in Hackney - The Way Home

Life and Death in Hackney – The Way Home

Swan Songs”?:

  •  Includes landscape photographs of Hackney that show how man and nature combined to create a unique and mythical beauty
    • As this project is another one of Tom Hunters relatively few landscape projects, this is essentially the only reason why I decided to include it within my research
    • However, although it does focus on landscapes, it doesn’t relate to the overarching theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” (but could possible relate to the “Romanticism” idea suggested above) as it is, once again, simply documenting the landscape in a beautiful way
Swan Songs

Swan Songs

 

After briefly researching into Tom Hunters work, although I feel that his work could relate to the more specific “Romanticism” idea I suggested above, I don’t think his work strongly fits into the overall theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” and feel that I need to search for artists/photographers with a slightly stronger connection to the theme to, as stated previously, create a more credible project.

 


 

Proposal Pitch and Feedback:

On Tuesday 21st October 2014, I attended a day of lectures where we were split into two different groups, a proposal pitch group and a review group. I started off the day in the proposal pitch group where I had to wait until 11:40 to pitch my idea to the review group. In this short 10-minute session I told them about my idea before receiving feedback from the review group. I then spent the second half of the day in the review group listening to other people’s proposals and ideas. The proposal that I presented, along with the brief notes from my proposal pitch feedback session can be found below:

Proposal

  • Look at Ulrich Baer’s “Spectral Evidence: The Photography of Trauma
  • Read Paul Ricoeur’s (French theorist) “Memory, History and Forgetting
  • Look at “The Art of Memory” by Francis Yates

 


 

Generalised Research into “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Further Reading Resources:

After my proposal pitch on Tuesday 21st of October 2014, I went away and conducted more generalized research into the area surrounding “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” through looking at the books that were suggested to me and some other resources that I found. These found resources are listed below:

  • Landscape as Photograph” by Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cock
  • Photography: A Cultural History” (Fourth Edition) by Mary Warner Marien
  • The Photograph as Contemporary Art” by Charlotte Cotton
  • The Photograph” by Graham Clarke
  • Emotional Geographies” edited by Dr. Joyce Davidson, Professor Liz Bondi, Mr. Mick Smith
  • Evocative Objects: Things We Think With” by Sherry Turkle
  • The Spirit of Mourning: History, Memory and the Body” by Paul Connerton

 


 

Symposium Idea (“Cultural Memory of Landscapes”) Feedback with Kate McMillan:

On Tuesday 28th October 2014, I attended half a day of university that was dedicated solely to our 350MC Symposium module. For this day, the whole year was split into two groups and I was in the group lead by Kate McMillan. Within this group, we were asked to discuss each of our Symposium ideas before receiving slightly more detailed feedback on where we should be going with our research. All of the feedback that I received from today’s session can be found below:

  • It’s all about what you type into Google Search that will help you to find appropriate resources. Try things like:
    • Cultural theory, memory and landscapes scholarly
    • Memory culture landscape scholarly
  • Would also be good to look at situated knowledge in cultural theory
  • Also, try and determine what it is about the remembering of the landscapes – is it loss, trauma, something that has been concealed by the landscape?
  • Try and define the critical context that is meaningful to you – for example, are you looking at lost memories that you are trying to retrieve?
  • Where to go from here:
    • Identify the types of memories you’re looking at for your final piece as this will help you find more appropriate theories
    • Maybe look at remembrance theories?
  • Within the Symposium presentation you can also say that the ideas have come from your own personal experiences – but perhaps check this with Anthony Luvera first

 


 

Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading:

As I read through each of the books stated above under “Generalised Research in “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” – Further Reading Resources”, I found that it was rather difficult to find important aspects that could relate to the overarching theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” before I had identified more specific topics within this subject. This is because I realised that a majority of the readings could relate to this very broad theme in some way or another. As I was reading these books, however, I kept in mind the feedback from Kate McMillan, and I soon found that this allowed me to identify a couple of ideas about how I could make my overarching theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” more specific. These ideas are described briefly below:

  • Reverie Memories
    • Reverie Memories are the type of memory that I am looking at for my final piece (Kate suggested that I identify the types of memories I’m looking at for your final piece as this will help me to find more appropriate theories )
      • “Philo’s (2003) paper on childhood turns to Bachelard’s notion of reverie, an episode of memory when we somehow travel back. A state where consciousness can slip back towards a more dreamlike state where the imagination, freed from the firm direction of focused thought and action, can begin to ‘drift’ back into all the remembered spaces, events and feelings which are in our minds.” – Philo (Emotional Geographies page 209)
  • Landscapes as memory triggers
    • I could perhaps look into how landscapes can act as triggers to these reverie memories?
  • Memories are remembered differently to how the event actually took place
    • It brings into account the individuals imagination
    • Allen Feldman – “The event is not what happens, the event is that which can be narrated [remembered?]”

 

After coming up with these small ideas that I could link into my symposium, the next step I am going to take is to discuss it with Kate McMillan in order to receive more feedback allowing me to push forward with more specific research and to help with the development of my ideas.

 


 

Fourth One-to-One Tutorial with Anthony Luvera – Further Reading Resources:

On Tuesday 4th November 2014, I originally planned to have a one-to-one tutorial with Kate discussing my recent breakthrough. However, after realizing that she had in fact told me she wasn’t going to be here on this day, I decided to share my ideas with Anthony Luvera. Below you can find the notes from this one-to-one tutorial and the books/theorists Anthony suggested I look at:

Readings:

  • Roland Barthes
    • Camera Lucida” – look at Punctum and Studium
  • Walter Benjamin
    • The Optic of Walter Benjamin
    • Illuminations
  • Siegfried Kracauer (and Paul Oskar Kristeller)
    • History – The Last Things before the Last
  • Marianne Hirsch
    • “Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory”
    • “Rites of Return: Diaspora, Poetics and the Politics of Memory” (also by Nancy Miller)
  • Margaret Iversen – looks at photography, memory and trauma
    • Psychoanalysis in Art History
    • “Beyond Pleasure: Freud, Lacan, Barthes”
    • Art and Thought” (edited with Dana Arnold)
  • Annette Kuhn
    • “Family Secrets:  Acts of Memory and Imagination
    • “Locating Memory: Photographic Acts” (edited with Kirsten Emiko McAllister)

 

Make sure you keep writing up your ideas as they come to you.

 


 

Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2):

Whilst reading The Art of Memory” by Frances A. Yates I soon found that this book was very helpful not only because of the way it was written and the number of theories it discussed, but because I soon found a number of pages that related to the more specific ideas I discussed above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading“. The ideas, the pages that I found them on, and my thoughts on how they relate to these more specific ideas, have been listed below:

  • Memory and Nature – Page 25
    • Accordingly, things immediate to our eye or ear we commonly forget; incidents of our childhood we often remember best. Nor could this be so for any other reason than that ordinary things easily slip from the memory while the striking and the novel stay longer in the mind… Thus nature shows that she is not aroused by the common ordinary event, but is moved by a new or striking occurrence. Let art, then, imitate nature, find what she desires, and follow what she directs.”
      • This quote briefly relates to the idea of “Cultural Memory of Landscape” as it clearly discusses the relationship between landscapes (“nature“) and the remembrance of different memories
      • In relation to the more specific ideas I identified above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading” this quote also links to the section where I discussed “Reverie Memories” as it talks about memories of childhood, and it also briefly relates to the section on “landscapes as memory triggers” as, as stated above, it discusses the relationship between landscapes (“nature”) and the remembrance of different memories
  • “Learn it by heart” – Page 30
    • The method of memorizing the verse will not work by itself, says the author of Ad Herennium. We must go over the verse three or four times, that is learn it by heart in the usual way, and then represent the words by means of images.”
      • This quote clearly relates to the concept of memory within the “Cultural Memory of Landscape” theme, and I identified this as a relevant quote as I also thought that it could possible relate to the more specific idea of “landscapes as memory triggers” that I identified above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading
      • This is because it is suggesting that people best remember memories through repeating the thing that wants to be remembered which is possibly the reason why landscapes can act as memory triggers – experiencing the landscape again allows the individual to remember the memory associated with it?
  • Place, Experience, Association – Page 37-38
    • “For when we return to a place after a considerable absence, we not merely recognize the place itself, but remember things that we did there, and recall the persons whom we met and even the unuttered thoughts which passed through our minds when we were there before.”
    • “He gives an absolutely rational reason as to why the places may help memory, because we know from experience that a place does call up associations in memory.”
      • This greatly relates to the more specific idea of “landscapes as memory triggers” that I identified above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading” as it is essentially saying that places/landscapes are known to act as powerful triggers to memory
  • Recollection – Page 48
    • Aristotle distinguishes between memory and reminiscence, or recollection. Recollection is the recovery of knowledge or sensation which one had before. It is a deliberate effort to find one’s way among the contents of memory, hunting among its contents for what one is trying to recollect.”
      • I think that this quote can greatly relate to some of the more specific ideas related to “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” that I identified above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading
      • It can relate to the idea of “Reverie Memories” that I am looking at, as well as the idea of “landscapes as memory triggers”, I can apply this quote to these ideas by saying that landscapes can trigger the recollection of a reverie memory (associated to the quote as the reverie memory is a “sensation which one had before“)

 

After reading “The Art of Memory” I then went on to read “Camera Lucida” by Roland Barthes. I found this book very easy to read and soon noticed another couple of ideas that would fit in well with the Symposium idea I currently have in mind (“Cultural Memory of Landscapes”). These ideas (and the pages that I found them on), along with why I think they relate, can be found below:

  • A photographs punctum is that accident which pricks me (but also bruises me, is poignant to me).” – Page 27
    • The idea of Barthes Punctum, instead of relating entirely to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes”, it can instead, briefly, relate to one of the more specific ideas associated with this overall theme that I discussed above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading
    • The more specific idea that it can relate to is “landscape [photographs] acting as memory triggers” as this provides an individual with a personal “pricking” and “wounding” due to the fact that the landscape [photograph] can trigger the recollection of a personal memory
  • Punctum as Time; “The new punctum, which is no longer of form but of intensity, is Time, the lacerating emphasis of the noeme (“that-has-been”), its pure representation.” – Page 96
    • This quote discussing Punctum and Time can briefly relate to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it can be applied to the general idea of memories by describing and explaining them as “representations of what has already been
  • Each photograph is read as the private appearance of its referent: the age of Photography corresponds precisely to the explosion of the private into the public, or rather into the creation of a new social value, which is the publicity of the private: the private is consumed as such, publicly…” – Page 98
    • This quote can very briefly relate to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it can be used to suggest that landscape photographs are a way of publicising private family memories/aspects – I do understand that this is a very brief link to ideas on memory and landscapes though!

 

After reading “Camera Lucida”, I then read “The Optic of Walter Benjamin” edited by Alex Cole. Within this book, I found a reference to another book called “Die Mneme” by Richard Semon’s and thought that the brief description of the discussed theory would also help with my Symposium idea. This can be found below:

  • Page 104 – “For Semon, using a well-established metaphor, stimuli inscribes themselves on the memory and remain as traces, termed “engrams” by Semon, which can be reactivated under certain circumstances.”
    • This description can briefly relate to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it can be applied to the more specific idea (discussed above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading”) of “landscape as memory triggers” through the fact that it suggests that a stimuli (the landscape memory trigger) reactivates memories or traces of the past

 

After reading “The Optic of Walter Benjamin” another book that I read was called “Rites of Return: Diaspora Poetics and the Politics of Memory” edited by Marianne Hirsch and Nancy K. Miller. Whilst reading this book (especially the chapter “Memoirs of Return” by Saidiya Hartman, Eva Hoffman and Daniel Mendelsohn in conversation with Nancy K. Miller) I soon came up with a couple more ideas that I could incorporate into my Symposium, as well as being introduced to another possible case study. These ideas, along with the possible case study, are listed below:

  • Postmemory
    • Can relate to the “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as it is an event that is remembered through the generations, even though the individual may not have actually experienced it
    • It therefore relates greatly to this idea of cultural (or collective) memory as an individual holds a memory of a particular thing/event, even though they didn’t actually experience it, that has been past onto them through the collective stories of the culture

 

  • However, similar to the ideas discussed under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading” I should look into the idea of “Landscape and Memory
    • Included in this overarching theme could include sections such as:
      • Returning to a place to reconnect with memories of reverie (identified above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading“) –
        • This idea was sparked from the chapter “Memoirs of Return” by Saidiya Hartman, Eva Hoffman and Daniel Mendelsohn in conversation with Nancy K. Miller as this is essentially what they were discussing throughout the interview
      • The idea of false memories and the affect imagination has on memories, including how the timeline of memories can change
        • This idea was sparked from reading up on the idea of “Postmemory” that was suggested throughout this book (which has also been described above)
        • An individuals imagination can affect the “reality” of a memory and alter/change the memory depending on different aspects, including being told about a particular story over and over again (how it relates to “Postmemory“)

 

  • Mikael Levin (“War Story”)
    • In “War Story”, Levin looks at “Landscape and Memory” by retracing his fathers World War II journey through Europe in order to create a visual narrative of the pieces of writing his father was commissioned to create throughout the war
    • This clearly links to the newly thought of idea of “returning to a place to reconnect with memories of reverie” (suggested above) as he returns to the places of his fathers memories
    • I am therefore going to bare this project in mind as I continue with my research as I feel that this project could be a very strong contender for one of my case studies – however, this may change as my ideas and paper develop

 


 

New Symposium Theme (“Memory and Place”) and Reviewing Case Studies:

“Memory and Place” – New Theme:

After reading through the books discussed above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)“, especially “Rites of Return: Diaspora Poetics and the Politics of Memory”, I decided to collate the information from each of these books in order to create a new overarching theme that increases the specificity of the paper (which was briefly discussed under both “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading” and “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)”), as well as deciding on more specific sections to include under this new overarching theme. The new theme, along with the more specific sections can be found below:

  • Main theme to look at should be “Memory and Place
  • This new theme should be split into three sections, including:
    • Looking into bereavement and reminiscence
      • (Briefly discussed under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading”)
    • Returning to places to reconnect with lost loved ones and reverie memories, and using places as memory triggers
      • (Briefly discussed under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading” and  “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)”)
    • Possibly looking into imagination – does it change/alter an individuals memories? 
      • (Briefly discussed under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)”)

 

Reviewing Case Studies:

After thinking of these three sections that I could include in the new theme of “Memory and Place”, I decided to briefly look back at the case studies I had previously considered in order to see whether they could appropriately fit in with the new topics. Below you will therefore find a list of the case studies I had previously considered (not including Tom Hunter that I had already dismissed from initial research), and whether they could be incorporated into these new sections:

  • Paul Seawright’s “Hidden“, “Oubiler” and “The Missing
    • Although Paul Seawright does essentially look at the overarching theme of “Memory and Place” (through photographing places where people died, or that held a collective history, in order to tell the stories and the memories associated with the landscape), I don’t feel that he necessarily fits into the more specific sections that I am now planning on including within my paper (at this stage in the development anyway)
    • This is because, instead of looking at landscapes that depict or represent places where people have died/gone missing, I want to focus more on the idea of using landscapes (and landscape photographs) as memory triggers of (reverie) memories that allow people to reconnect to these lost loved ones
    • I therefore don’t think that I will be considering his work any further – however, as my project develops, I may find that I will want to revisit his work
  • Ann Chwatsky’s “When I Was a Girl
    • Ann Chwatsky briefly looks into the overarching theme of “Memory and Place” but actually greatly relates to a couple of the more specific sections that I am planning on including within my paper
    • By creating photomontages to portray particular, personal childhood [reverie] memories (as well as using landscapes as an expressive tool), Chwatsky’s work can relate to the second section discussed above about “returning to places to reconnect with lost loved ones and reverie memories”
      • Although she hasn’t actually returned to the place, she has used different familiar landscapes within these photomontages to symbolise the emotions of these childhood [reverie] memories
      • By creating these [reverie] memory photomontages, Chwatsky has also produced a piece of work that, through it’s creation, has allowed her to reconnect to her child self (the lost loved one discussed in the new section of the paper)
      • This idea of reconnecting to her child self also relates to the first section of the paper about “looking into reminiscing”
    • I therefore think that I will continue to consider Ann Chwatsky’s work as my ideas and paper develop
  • David Farrell’s “Innocent Landscapes
    • Although David Farrell does essentially look at the overarching theme of “Memory and Place” (through photographing the excavation sites where individuals were buried after being killed by the IRA), I don’t feel that he necessarily fits in to the more specific sections that I am planning on including within my paper (at this stage in the development anyway)
    • Very similar to Paul Seawright, this is because, instead of looking at landscapes that depict or represent places where people have died/gone missing, I want to focus more on the idea of using landscapes (and landscape photographs) as memory triggers of (reverie) memories that allow people to reconnect to these lost loved ones
    • I therefore don’t think that I will be considering his work any further – however, as my project develops, I may find that I will want to revisit his work
  • Mikael Levin’s “War Story
    • Mikael Levin’s work greatly relates to the overall topic of “Memory and Place” because, as stated above when I briefly researched into his work,  by retracing his fathers World World War II journey through Europe, he returns to the places of his fathers memories (which also links to the more specific section of “returning to a place to reconnect with lost loved ones and memories of reverie”)
    • This project also, therefore, relates to the first section about “bereavement and reminiscence” and could potentially (very loosely) fit into the third section regarding “imagination and the changing of memories” as I could look into how Levin’s memories are different from his fathers memories of the same place (but as suggested, this is a very, very loose connection)
    • I therefore think that I will continue to consider Mikael Levin’s work as my ideas and paper develop

 


 

Revised Proposal Pitch Feedback:

On Tuesday 18th November 2014 I pitched a new version of my proposal to the class (that included the ideas suggested above under “New Symposium Theme (“Memory and Place”) and Reviewing Case Studies”) in order to gain more constructive feedback and ideas, which would allow me to remain on the right track for my research. David Campbell Blight took this particular session, and the revised proposal, along with the notes he gave me on possible case studies, can be found below:

Revised Proposal

  • David Birkin “Profiles” (2011 – 2012) – addresses the relationship between spectacle and loss by creating a visual data representation of the civilian casualties of the Iraq War
    • ’Profiles’ addresses the relationship between spectacle and loss. Sidestepping the representational remit of conventional war photography, it reflects on the visibility of civilian casualties of the Iraq War and the paucity of such images.” – http://www.davidbirkin.net/work/#/profiles/
    • David Birkin’s work, although it links in very well with the idea of loss (that I am planning on briefly looking at as the second section of my paper: “returning to a place to reconnect with lost loved ones and memories of reverie”), similar to both Paul Seawright and David Farrell, I feel that Birkin’s work focuses more on the actual death of individuals rather than the idea of trying to reconnect to these individuals (which I have also planned to be in the second section of my paper)
    • I also don’t think that there is a strong enough link to the memory aspect of the project (which is a very large portion of my idea)
    • I have therefore decided not to consider his work any further – however, as my project develops, I may find that I will want to revisit his work
  • Idris Khan – investigates memory, creativity and the layering of experience by creating, erasing, or adding new layers to visible traces that have gone before
    • Drawing his inspiration from the history of art and music as well as key philosophical and theological texts, Idris Khan investigates memory, creativity and the layering of experience.” – http://www.victoria-miro.com/artists/14-Idris-Khan/
    • Idris Khan’s work can fit into the overall theme of “Memory and Place” as well as one of the more specific sections stated above
      • Occasionally looking at different places (please see examples below), Kahn’s work clearly links to ideas on memory
      • Looking into the methodology of his work (which includes creating, erasing, and adding new layers to already existing traces) I feel that he could greatly link into the third section/idea that I have come up with surrounding “changing/altering memories” – his methodology could represent the processes of change that memories undergo
    • I am therefore now considering him, along with Ann Chwatsky and Mikael Levin, as one of my case studies for my Symposium paper

 

 


 

Research Ideas from Matt Johnston – Possible Case Study:

On Wednesday 19th November 2014, I attended a day of lectures dedicated to my other module called #Phonar. At the end of this session, one of our lecturers, Matt Johnston, came up to me and offered a suggestion of research to look at for my Symposium Project. This idea can be found below:

  • When Photographs Create False Memories” by Maryanne Garry and Matthew P. Gerrie – a case study that included the manipulation of a photograph that placed the participants in an image of a hot air balloon ride, and were later asked if they remembered the event after viewing the manipulated image of themselves
    • Although it doesn’t really relate to the overarching theme of “Memory and Place, this study could link in very well with the more specific idea of “imagination and changed/altered memories” (the third section of my paper’s plan)

 


 

One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan:

On Tuesday 2nd December 2014, I had a one-to-one tutorial with Kate McMillan where I showed her my brief structure of my Symposium Presentation and Presentation of Case Studies that Daniel Campbell Blight asked us to create two weeks prior. These can be found below:

Brief Structure of Symposium Presentation

Case Studies Presentation – (Including Ann Chwatsky, Idris Khan, Mikael Levin and the case study by Maryanne Garry and Matthew P. Gerrie)

At the beginning of the tutorial, Kate simply went through these two documents with me where she suggested different ideas and theorists, as well as the structure of the presentation. These notes have been written out below:

Brief Structure of Symposium Presentation:

  • Section 3 where you talk about false memories is a whole other section of theories and ideas that may be too much to talk about in your 10 minute presentation – I would also argue that memories are always false due to subjective remembering
  • You may want to look at subjective interplay between past and present – but this is bordering more on history than memory
  • The introduction should include:
    • Dense ideas
    • Amazing quotes
    • Situate yourself in these ideas – this interest has stemmed from personal experiences (check with Anthony Luvera first)
  • When you get to the work of the photographers, your ideas should have been so well developed that they can speak for themselves and simply provide the evidence
  • You should definitely include any “Eureka” quotes
  • After each quote, make sure you explain it – don’t let the quote speak for itself
  • Read works by Barbara Bolt about situated knowledge (typed “Barbara Bolt situated knowledge and landscape scholarly” and these are the pieces Kate suggested I read):
    • Shedding Light For The Matter
    • Disembodied Landscapes” by Francesca Veronesi and Petra Gemeinboeck
    • Flirting With Space: Thinking Landscape Relationally” by David Crouch
    • Ambient Thinking: Or, Sweating over Theory” by Alison Bartlett
  • You should also look at:
    • Time: Documents of Contemporary Art” from Whitechapel Gallery
    • Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” from Whitechapel Gallery
  • Another theorist you should look at is Proust and his ideas on that sensory perception trigger memory
    • In Search of Lost Time: Volume One” by Marcel Proust

 

Presentation of Case Studies:

  • Ann Chwatsky’s “When I Was A Girl series definitely successfully highlights the first section you are looking at about “reminiscence”, and can also be used to briefly explore ideas in the second section about “reconnecting to a lost loved one and reverie memories”
  • For Idris Khan’s work, you may need to read around people who have written about his work to make sure that it is definitely what you’re looking at
  • However, after being introduced to Mikael Levin’s “War Story series, this is definitely more appropriate than the work of Idris Khan
  • Looking at When Photographs create False Memories, I think this is a very good case study for the third section on false memories, but you need to decide whether you’re going to include this section within the Symposium

 

Finally, to complete the session, she decided to type some more intricate notes up to allow her to think out loud and put all of her suggestions over to me. These have been included below, in italics:

Kate’s Written Notes:

  • Address situated knowledge – How does this relate to memory/memory triggers?
  • Be really clear about what you mean when you discuss memory. Really highlight that this is about MEMORY TRIGGERS AND (AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL?) LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY

The structure of the presentation should be:

  • REALLY BLOODY GOOD THEORETICAL CONTEXT – 2-3 PARAGRAPHS
  • CASE STUDIES
  • SUMMARY

Some things you may also want to look at include (and these may be briefly discussed in the summary):

  • What is it about photography that makes this position significant/unique/distinct? – Address what photography can do/does and some of its specific qualities.
  • WHAT IS ABSENT FROM THE IMAGE?
  • Look at the residue of the image/past
  • How does the photographic trace relate to memory studies?

 


 

Deciding Case Studies:

Chosen Case Studies:

After this session with Kate, I am now planning on using Ann Chwatsky’s “When I Was A Girl and Mikael Levin’s “War Story as the two case studies for my presentation. This is because, as suggested above, both Ann Chwatsky’s and Mikael Levin’s work relate to the overarching theme of “Memory and Place” whilst also greatly relating to the first two sections of my essay: “reminiscence and bereavement” and “returning to a place to reconnect to a lost loved one and reverie memories” (to see how these projects relate to these sections, please see above under “New Symposium Theme (“Memory and Place”) and Reviewing Case Studies“).

Ann Chwatsky’s “When I Was A Girl”:


Mikael Levin’s “War Story”:

 

Other Case Studies:

In regards to Idris Kahn’s work, I have therefore decided to exclude him as a possible case study as, like Kate suggested in the one-to-one tutorial above, Mikael Levin’s “War Story is definitely more appropriate to use for both the overarching themes and specific sections of the essay.

As for the psychological study When Photographs create False Memories, although it is a very good case study for the third section of my planned essay structure, as suggested by Kate, I really need to consider whether I am going to include this section within my paper.

 

With all this being said however, as my essay will develop over time, I may need to reconsider my case studies at a later date.

 


 

Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (3):

After my one-to-one tutorial with Kate McMillan, I continued with my reading research. One of the books that I read after this session (as suggested by Anthony Luvera in my fourth one-to-one with him) was History: The Last thing Before The Last” by Siegfried Kracauer. Although this book was mainly about theories surrounding history, I read it with an open mind and soon found that it gave me a couple of ideas on further theorists and readings to look into as well as how I could relate this to my Symposium theme.

  • Main theorist discussed was Jacob Burckhardt
    • However, after researching into the books that he has written, I found that they don’t relate to my Symposium and would therefore be unhelpful if I read them as a part of my research
  • How can I connect the idea of history and memory? (Although it is very unusual, the idea for the connection that came to me was as follows):
    • Historians are described in this book as storytellers of past events
    • Our memories therefore make us a form of a historian as we tell stories about the significant events in the past, from an individual perspective, through our personal memories
  • Time-Conditioned Truth” – page 200
    • I personally thought that this term instantly connected with memories
    • The process of this idea is as follows:
      • Time-conditioned truth = memories
      • They are events that have happened in the past which are adapted over time through the use of the individuals imagination adapting the truth of the event
    • This idea therefore relates to my third (possible) section of my Symposium presentation where I may discuss “false memories” and how the individual’s imagination can affect the truth of a memory

 

After reading “History: The Last Thing Before The Last”, another article that I read was called “Disembodied Landscapes” by Francesca Veronesi and Petra Gemeinboeck. This particular article talks about the connection with landscapes in both a physical and mental sense through their two map-making experiments that use Aboriginal landscapes and cultures as examples.

Whilst reading through this article that discusses these experiments, I came across a number of different interesting theories and concepts that I could use in my Symposium presentation (and Final Major project). However, there was one quote in the “Skin-Memory” experiment that gaged my interest and resulted in me thinking about a more specific idea that might be used within my presentation. This idea is given below:

  • Skin reveals in its marks and scars the memory of past actions” – Page 78
    • This quote relates skin to landscapes
    • This can perhaps be used to suggest that certain landscapes are personal to us – they are a part of us, a part of our identity
    • This quote can be changed to “Landscapes mark and scar our memories with the past actions that took place there” – which in turn relates to my ideas on “landscapes as memory triggers” (the second section of my essay)

 

After reading “Disembodied Landscape”, another book that I read as a part of my research was “The Thread of Life” by Richard Wollheim. Although I found this particular book very difficult to understand due to it’s language, style, and complex ideas, I managed to relate one of the theories he discussed to one that I have already read about, allowing me to gain a slight understanding of his perspective on the theory. This particular theory can be found below:

Acentred and Centred Event-Memory”- Page 102:

  • Acentred Event-Memory is where “In remembering a certain event I may remember it from no point of view within that event
    • This links to “Postmemory” discussed by Marianne Hirsch (please see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)“) which is an event that is remembered through the generations, even though the individual may not have experienced it
    • This idea would have therefore related more to the previous theme of “Cultural Memory of Landscapes” as, like suggested when discussing the idea of “postmemory” it relates greatly to this idea of cultural (or collective) memory as an individual holds a memory of a particular thing/event, even though they didn’t actually experience it, that has been past onto them through the collective stories of the culture
  • Centred Event-Memory is where “I centrally remember an event and not just that it occurred: the event is one that I have lived through: I remember it from a point of view: and this point of view is represented within the memory.
    • Centred Event-Memory’s primary feature is the idea of living through and experiencing a past event (that is now stored and can be remembered from a personal memory)
    • It is therefore this idea of  “Centred Event-Memory” that I will essentially be discussing in in the new theme of “Memory and Place” as it links to the first two sections (“bereavement and reminiscence and how they relate to reverie memories” and “returning to places to reconnect with the deceased loved ones/reverie memories”) that I identified in the brief structure plan I have created already (found above under “One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan“)
      • The idea of reminiscence relates to a sensation which one has experienced before (seen in “The Art of Memory” by Frances A. Yates – see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)“) and the phrase “returning to a place”, also suggests that the individual has already experienced an event in this particular place

 


 

“First Draft” Feedback:

On Tuesday 9th December 2014, I attended my last day of lectures in 2014 that were dedicated to the 350MC Symposium module. On this day, we simply spent the day taking part in a practice run for our symposium. During my practice run I simply presented where I was at and the ideas of the structure of my presentation. Below you can find the renewed versions for both my Brief Structure of Symposium and Case Studies Presentation that I presented on the day, along with any feedback I received:

Brief Structure of Symposium Presentation – Draft 2

Case Studies Presentation 2 – (Including Ann Chwatsky, Mikael Levin and the case study by Maryanne Garry and Matthew P. Gerrie)

Feedback on Structure:

  • The third section of your plan is, like Kate said, a whole other debate
  • However, section 1 and 2 of your plan link in very well together and it will therefore be easy for you to fill out your essay with relevant research based around these areas
  • There seem to be two reoccurring themes that you’re looking at within your structure that you haven’t actually identified in your plan; these are the “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”
    • “Relationship Between Image and Text” is talking about the fact that you have used two photographic examples that rely on accompanying text in order to recreate or reconnect with a particular memory – this perhaps suggests that (autobiographical landscape) photography needs accompanying text, when creating pieces about memory and remembrance, as a way of contextualizing the memory concept within the piece
    • “Death Photography” – when going through your plan, it’s suggested that you were looking at the function of photographs which could include the depicting of dead people as a form of remembrance
  • As a suggestion, you could also look at the juxtaposition of how Landscape and Memory both decay over time
  • The plan of your structure is very rich in terms of theories and ideas

 

Feedback on Case Studies:

  • Although the plan is very rich in different theories and ideas, I don’t think the case studies suit the theories discussed – however, they do connect through the idea suggested above about the “Relationship Between Image and Text” in recreating or reconnecting with a particular memory
  • Also, not sure if Ann Chwatsky fits in with the “Autobiographical” section of the presentation due to the different landscapes that she looks at within her montages (i.e. they’re not her hometown but landscapes she is interested in/familiar with)
  • Perhaps look at different photographers that look at Landscape AND Death (if you decide to go down the “Death Photography” route) including:
    • David Farrell’s “Innocent Landscapeslooked at above
    • Paul Seawright (http://www.paulseawright.com) – looked at above
    • PinePoint” by Paul Shoebridge and Michael Simons (http://pinepoint.nfb.ca/#/pinepoint)
      • As I have previously been introduced to PinePoint through the #Phonar module, although I feel that it could briefly relate to the idea of “Memory and Place“, I feel that it focuses more on the idea of archives in the digital age, and that it will therefore not fully relate to some of the more specific theories I am discussing as much as other possible case studies could
      • I therefore don’t think I will be using this as a case study for my essay
Screen Shot of PinePoint Index Page

Screen Shot of PinePoint Index Page

 

Reading and Theorists to Consider (some already stated above):

 

After receiving this feedback, I decided that I would research into some of these particular resources and add them to my bibliography, before discussing the two themes suggested above (“Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”), before continuing with my previous research.

 


 

Discussing the Ideas of “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”, from the First Draft Feedback Session – My Thoughts:

As seen in the “First Draft Feedback” session above, it was suggested that there were two reoccurring themes that I was looking at in my structure that I hadn’t actually identified in my plan: “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”. Below you will find my thoughts on the two suggested themes, including the reasoning behind whether I will include them or not.

“Relationship Between Image and Text”:

  • I completely agree with Anthony in the fact that I have used two photographic examples that rely on accompanying text in order to recreate or reconnect with a particular memory, which perhaps suggests that (autobiographical landscape) photography needs accompanying text, when creating pieces about memory and remembrance, as a way of contextualizing the memory concept within the piece
  • However, although this is the case, I do not feel that it is a broad enough topic to focus the whole of my essay on and so, instead, I will bear this particular idea in mind and, when it comes to writing the essay, will consider including a sentence within the analysis of the case studies to suggest this particular theme

 

“Death Photography”:

  • As for the theme of “Death Photography” I do understand where Anthony is coming from when he suggests that I am looking at the photographs function of remembrance through the depiction/representation of dead people
  • However, once I was introduced to this particular idea, and the case studies suggested in association with the theme (Paul Seawright and David Farrell), I soon realised that I had already briefly explored this topic without knowing, and that it was actually this theme that had resulted in the disregarding of these two suggested case studies
  • As stated above (under “New Symposium Theme (“Memory and Place”) and Reviewing Case Studies“) I thought that this theme (and the work of both Paul Seawright and David Farrell) did not relate to the specific topics I was planning on discussing under the overarching theme of “Cultural Memory and Landscapes” (which has now been changed to “Memory and Place”)
    • This is because, instead of looking at landscapes that depict or represent places where people have died/gone missing, I want to focus more on the idea of using landscapes (and landscape photographs) as memory triggers of (reverie) memories that allow people to reconnect to these lost loved ones

However, with all of this being said, I am still planning on bearing these two particular themes in mind (“Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”) as I continue with my research, as well as using the resources that were suggested alongside these two particular themes, to see if they will be useful for the development of my essay.

 


 

Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4):

After my First Draft feedback, I continued with my reading research. One of the books that Kate McMillan suggested (prior to the “First Draft Feedback” session), was Time: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Amelia Groom. Whilst reading some of the works in this collection, I soon found that a couple of concepts discussed would fit in nicely with my original plan and the suggested changes given to me in the “First Draft Feedback” session. Some of these interesting sections/quotes that sparked different ideas can be found below:

  • “Never the Same River” Exhibition
    • In its making, ‘Never The Same River’ has asked all sorts of questions about the relationship between art works and their documentation, between photography and memory, and between the objects that haunt the centres history and the ideas that evolve around them.” – Page 33 “Never the Same River (Possible Futures, Probably Pasts)” by Simon Starling
    • After being introduced to the exhibition “Never the Same River” I decided to do some brief research into it as I thought that it could possibly be included as a case study through the fact that it looks at the relationship between photography and memory:
      • http://www.camdenartscentre.org/whats-on/view/exh11
      • The exhibition brings together 30 different artists
      • It looks at the relationship between photography and memory and how objects can hold onto the past through the memories they trigger
      • Although it is suggested that this is what it essentially looks at (which could greatly relate to some of my overarching themes of memory and photography) I don’t really think it relates to the other overarching themes of landscapes/place and, through my brief research, I couldn’t see how it could relate to the more specific sections I have included in my structured plan (see above under “First Draft Feedback“)
      • I have therefore decided not to include this exhibition as one of my final case studies as I don’t think that the pieces of work in this exhibition (including those that do look at all three overarching themes of memory, photography and landscapes/place) hold a strong enough connection to the specific topics planned within the essay
  • Page 49 of Geoffrey Batchen’s “Life and Death”
    • This particular piece was very helpful as it not only discussed ideas to do with photography and memory (in relation to time) (which are some of the main overarching themes I am planning on looking at within my “Memory and Place” paper), but it also discussed the relationship between photography and death (which was suggested that I look at it in the “First Draft Feedback” Session)
    • Unfortunately, as the whole of the paper was essentially relevant, I have decided not to copy the useful quotes, and will instead, bear this piece of writing in mind as I continue with the development of my ideas and essay
    • As suggested in the “First Draft Feedback” session, I will also be conducting further researching into the work of Geoffrey Batchen, by reading “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida
  • Henri Bergson
    • Throughout numerous works within this collection, I soon found that the French philosopher Henri Bergson was mentioned a lot. I therefore decided to do some brief research about this particular philosopher, and the books that he wrote. During this research, I soon found a book by him called “Matter and Memory” that, after having a look at the contents page, seemed it could be very useful for the concepts and theories I am looking at. I have therefore decided to add this book to my Bibliography.

 

After reading “Time: Documents of Contemporary Art”, I then read Shedding Light for the Matter” by Barbara Bolt and Flirting with Space: Thinking Landscape Relationally” by David Crouch. Although when reading “Shedding Light for the Matter” I thought that it wasn’t very helpful as it simply talked about light and glare in aboriginal landscapes and paintings, after reading “Flirting with Space: Thinking Landscape Relationally” I soon found that this simplified the concepts discussed by Barbara Bolt. I also noticed, when reading “Flirting with Space: Thinking Landscape Relationally”, that this was yet another piece of research that introduced me to more ideas for my Symposium presentation. These ideas can be found below:

  • Landscapes and photographs are performative pieces
    • Two dimensional pictures may not be experienced only through the gaze, but with diverse dispositions of the body, memory recall, inter-subjectivity, emotion, fear and anxiety unlike the formal viewing mistakenly associated with art in the gallery.” – Page 8
    • The individual can feel so connected with space that s/he no longer is aware, momentarily, of being (merely) human; we may become the event, become the landscape.” – Page 14
      • Both of these quotes relate to the ideas found in the second section of my symposium plan, where I am planning on discussing using “landscapes as memory triggers”
      • They are suggesting that there is more to landscapes than what is viewed, including personal memories that are associated with the landscapes (hence the link to “landscapes as memory triggers”), and that these memories can allow us to feel as though we are a part of the landscape
  • Peter Lanyon
    • As Lanyon walked, he felt surrounded by space, but also, implicitly, he was feeling varying intensities of different moments and memories” – Page
    • After being introduced to Peter Lanyon through this particular sentence, I decided to do some brief research into him as I thought that his work could possibly be included as a case study through the fact that it links to landscape and memory (and therefore the overall theme of my project “Memory and Place”)
    • http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/peter-lanyon-146
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/artists/peter-lanyon
    • After conducting this brief research, I soon realised that he was actually a painter, and, although his work clearly links to landscape and memory, he obviously doesn’t fit into the idea of landscape PHOTOGRAPHY and memory
    • I have therefore decided not to include him as one of my final case studies for my paper

 

 

After reading “Flirting with Space: Thinking Landscape Relationally”, I then went on to read The Nature and Source of Emotion” by Sebastian Gardner. Now, although this was mainly about emotion and I found it rather difficult to read due to it’s terminology, there were some quotes that I thought could fit in quite nicely with the concepts I am planning on discussing in my essay. These quotes, along with the theories/concepts they relate to can be found below:

  • The irrationality of emotion is not just an effect of the typical background connections of emotion (the fact that in being emotional becomes ‘an easy prey to the imagination’)…” – Page 39
    • This quote can relate to the third section of my symposium paper, that I am still contemplating , about “false memories and imagination”
    • It is suggesting that having an emotional connection to something (including the reverie memories that individuals can remember about different lost loved ones – which is going to be included in the first section of my essay) can allow the imagination to talk hold and alter the particular thing associated with the emotion (in this case, the memory, which means that the imagination can create a false memory)
  • “… Then guilt, as an emotion-kind, does not ‘come into existence’ through the conscious entertaining of moral thoughts.” – Page 47
    • Using guilt as an example, it is saying that emotion is an unconscious thing that we don’t have control over and can therefore be triggered into ‘existence’ through different (visual) stimuli
    • This therefore links to the idea of “memory triggers” which is planned to be included in the second section of my symposium paper

 

After reading “The Nature and Source of Emotion”, I then went on to read Volume One of Marcel Proust’s “In Search of Lost Time(which, as suggested in brief research above, under “One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan“, is the main novel, out of the seven, that greatly relates to ideas on memory). So, as this particular book was actually a novel, to determine which sections of the book were relevant to me, I used the Synopsis at the back of the book to point me in the direction of sections surrounding my chosen themes. Whilst reading through these sections, I came across a number of areas that I thought would be useable within my essay. These points, along with some of my ideas, can be found below, underneath the section title of the book that I found them in:

‘Resurrection of Combray through Involuntary Memory. The madeleine dipped in a cup of tea.’

  • But since the facts which I should then have recalled would have been prompted only by voluntary memory, the memory of the intellect, and since the pictures which that kind of memory shows us preserve nothing of the past itself, I should never have had any wish to ponder over this residue of Combray” – Page 44
  • The past is hidden somewhere outside the realm, beyond the reach of intellect, in some material object (in the sensation which that material object will give us) of which we have no inkling. And it depends upon chance whether or not we come upon this object before we ourselves must die.” – Page 45
    • These two quotes discuss the difference between “Voluntary Memory” and “Involuntary Memory” and suggests that “Voluntary Memory” is the memory of the intellect that is forced into recollection, whereas “Involuntary Memory” is the memory that is recollected through a stimuli or memory trigger
    • This idea of “Involuntary Memory” therefore greatly relates to the second section of my symposium paper where I am planning on looking at “landscapes as memory triggers” as it is suggesting that memory triggers initiate the recollection of an “Involuntary Memory” (which, in the case of my essay, would be the Reverie memories I am planning on discussing)
  • “… Or rather this essence was not in me, it was me.” – Page 45
  • The drink has called it into being, but does not know it, and can only repeat indefinitely, with a progressive diminution of strength…” – Page 46
    • These quotes greatly relate to the ideas of “Involuntary Memory” by suggesting that it is the strength of our minds that allows different objects to trigger the recollection of “Involuntary Memories” (which, in the case of my essay, these objects would be landscapes or landscape photographs)
    • This also, therefore links to my second section of my symposium where I am planning on looking at “(landscapes as) memory triggers”
  • More than that: create. It is face to face with something that does not yet exist, which it alone can make actual, which it alone can bring into the light of day.” – Page 46
    • This quote is essentially saying that although memories are of the past, when an individual see’s a memory trigger that results in the recollection of an “Involuntary Memory”, the mind is not just remembering the event of the in the past, but bringing/creating this event, psychologically, in the present
    • This quote therefore links mainly to the first section of my symposium paper where I am planning on discussing “remembrance” but also, obviously, links to my second section of my symposium where I am planning on looking at “(landscapes as) memory triggers”
  • Undoubtedly what is thus palpitating in the depths of my being must be the image, the visual memory which, being linked to that taste, is trying to follow it into my conscious mind.” – Page 46
    • This quote is looking at the idea of visual memory (which is a very good term to consider for my essay) and it essentially saying that a visual memory of a past event can actually be triggered by other sensual stimuli (such as touch and taste)
    • Which again, means that this quote relates to my second section of my symposium where I am planning on looking at “(landscapes as) memory triggers”
  • ‘Does reality take shape in memory alone?’
    • The flowers which played them along the grass, the water which rippled past in the sunshine, the whole landscape which surrounded their apparition still lingers around the memory of them with its unconscious or unheeding countenance…” – Page 180
      • Memory and landscape
      • Landscapes may change but they can still be a powerful trigger for visual memory
      • This links to the idea of landscapes/places as memory triggers that was discussed in section two of my Brief Structure of Symposium

‘Memory and Reality’

  • …The memory of a particular image is but regret for a particular moment…” – Page 416
    • This quote could possibly link into the idea of loss which I am planning on briefly discussing in the second section of my paper where I discuss “reconnecting with a deceased loved one”
      • This is because, the idea of attempting to reconnect to a deceased loved one can sometimes be due to the fact that an individual regrets moments in the past that they spent with the deceased

‘The opposing forces of memory and imagination and Cruel memories’

  • It is true that this force, which my imagination was focusing upon the future, it drew, after all, from the past.” – Page 606
    • This quote is simply suggesting that an individuals imagination takes moments from the past in the form of memories, as a way of creating possible future scenarios/memories
    • This idea could therefore fit into the possible third section of my essay (that I am still considering) where I am planning on talking about imagination and false memories
  • The cruel memory, on the other hand, is not contemporaneous with the restored picture, it is of another age, it is one of the rare witnesses to a monstrous past. But inasmuch as this past continues to exist, saving ourselves who have been pleased to substitute for it a miraculous golden age, paradise in which all mankind will be reconciled, those memories, those letters carry us back to reality, and cannot but make us feel, by the sudden pang they give us, what a long way we have been borne from that reality by the basis hopes engendered by our daily expectation.” – Page 608
    • This quote is essentially suggesting that the past continues to exist in the present through memories and that the present reality is often created through (and disturbed) by activities and memories of the past
    • This quote could therefore link to the second section of my essay where I am looking at discussing ideas on “reconnecting to deceased loved ones/reverie memories” as it can be applied to this idea by suggesting that individuals can reconnect to their lost loved ones through the fact that the past (including their past loved ones) remains in the present in their [reverie] memories

 

After reading “In Search of Lost Time: Volume One”, I then read Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” edited by Geoffrey Batchen. Whilst reading this book, there were a couple of theories that I thought could be useful for my essay, which I have been included below under the main themes they discussed along with some notes that I made on them:

“Punctum”

 I was previously told to look at Barthes’s Punctum by my lecturer, Anthony Luvera (see above under “Fourth One-to-One with Anthony Luvera”), and found that these quotes expanded on previous research surrounding this theory that were looked at in Roland Barthes’ “Camera Lucida” (found above in “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)”)

  • It is the private nature of the experience which defines the punctum.” – Page 36
  • It is consistently the detail – the something in a photograph – that triggers a relay of thoughts and emotions back into his personal history.” – Page 244
  • Noeme” (that-has-been) – “This new punctum, which is no longer of form but of intensity, is Time, the lacerating emphasis of the noeme (‘that has been’), its pure representation” – Page 13
    • These quotes all expand on the ideas suggested above under Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)” 
      • These ideas discussed above included:
        • Where the idea of the punctum could relate to the second section of the paper where I am planning on discussing “landscape [photographs] as memory triggers” as this provides an individual with a personal “pricking” and “wounding” due to the fact that the landscape [photograph] can trigger the recollection of a personal memory
        • And how ideas discussing Punctum and Time can briefly relate to the general idea of memories by describing and explaining them as “representations of what has already been”

“Phantasy”

  • In a classic, Freudian, setting the word ‘phantasy’ refers to imaginary scenarios which can be conscious (as in the day-dream), preconscious (not conscious, but which may emerge into consciousness under favourable conditions), and unconscious (radically inaccessible to consciousness…” – Page 40 (related to section underlined on page 41)
    • When analysing this quote, I feel that the Freudian theories it discusses greatly relates to the second section of my Symposium essay where I am planning on looking at “landscapes as memory triggers”
    • This is because, I am essentially going to be looking at the idea of the preconscious because this is where the reverie memories will be stored in an individuals mind (please see definition of reverie memories below), and through the introduction to a favourable condition (or memory trigger – in the case of my essay, landscape/landscape photograph memory triggers), these memories will be recollected/brought back into the consciousness

Image and Text

I was also previously told to look at the “Relationship Between Image and Text” by my lecturer, Anthony Luvera (see above under “First Draft and Feedback” and “Discussing the Ideas of the “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography” – My Thoughts”), and, although I decided that I would only consider mentioning it in passing during the analysis of my case studies in my essay, I found this quote that I thought could relate to it:

  • “… The ‘deja-lu’: the ‘already read’, ‘already seen’, everything we already know and which the text may therefore call upon, or ‘accidentally’ evoke.” – Page 33
    • This quote is essentially suggesting that the “deja-lu” are the experiences and events that we’ve already experienced or taken part in, and text (as well as images) can evoke the remembrance of these experiences/events in the form of memories

Death Photography (and its relation to time and memory)

Once again, I was also previously told to look at “Death Photography” by my lecturer, Anthony Luvera (see above under “First Draft and Feedback” and “Discussing the Ideas of the “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography” – My Thoughts”), and, although I had previously stated that I didn’t want to consider the theme further (as instead of focusing on the representation of the dead, I was focusing more on the “reconnection to these deceased individuals”), I thought that these quotes could be relatively useful to include in the second section of my essay where I discuss the idea of “reconnecting” to these individuals:

  • A photograph weaves together presence and absence, present and past.” – Page 58
  • Even if the referent is no longer present or living… the trace of its ‘having-been-there’ belongs to what makes a photograph a photograph. This is why the photograph always appears as a form of haunting which, evoking a material trace of the past, condenses, among so many other things, the relation between the past and the present, the dead and the living, and destruction and survival.” – Page 118
    • These two quotes, as mentioned above, can not only relate to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing the “reconnection to deceased loved ones and reverie memories” but, can also relate to the ideas of “bereavement, reminiscence and remembrance” (which will be discussed in section one)
    • This is because they are suggesting that the photograph has the ability to bring the past (including their past loved ones) into the present through capturing what has already been

“Fragments”

  • Like the world, the photograph allows itself to be experienced only as a fragment, only as a remnant, of what withdraws from experience.” – Page 134
    • This quote is suggesting that photographs are seen as fragments in time through the capturing of different experiences, which provides a similarity between memories and photographs (as memories are also recalled in fragments), which would be able to fit in the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing the “relationship between the photographic trace and memory studies”

 

After reading “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” I then went on to read “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr. Again, whilst reading through this book, I was introduced to some possible case studies as well as some points that I thought could be incorporated into my Symposium presentation. These photographers/artists and different quotes have been included below with some of my ideas on the topics and how they relate to my chosen themes:

Possible Case Studies:

  • Bert Teuinessen’s “Domestic Landscapes” (1996-) – Page 19
    • http://www.bertteunissen.com/category.php?catId=5
    • After being introduced to Bert Teuinessen’s “Domestic Landscapes” on page 19, I decided to do some brief research into him as I thought that his work could possibly be included as a case study through the fact that his title suggests a relationship with one of my overarching themes of “landscapes”
    • However, after conducting this research around this particular project, I soon found that, although he does look at a landscape in the form of a domestic/urban landscape, his work doesn’t fit in to any other overarching themes or specific sections I am planning on discussing within my paper
    • I have therefore decided that I will not be using this piece of work as one of my case studies

 

  • Works that look at “the juxtaposition of traces from different spaces…” and “the overt ‘memory’ dimension [that] lies in the site-specific ‘souvenirs’ their artworks often leave behind.
    • David Hammons
    • Jimmie Durham
    • Felix Gonzalez-Torres
    • Gabriel Orozco
    • After being introduced to these names, alongside the sentences quoted above, I decided to do some brief research into them as I thought that their work could possibly be included as different case studies through the fact that they supposedly look into a couple of my overarching themes of “landscapes/places” (“site-specific“) and “memory”
    • Similar to Peter Lanyon though, after conducting this brief research, I soon realised that these artist primarily specialised in sculpting (and that the quotes were actually referring to their exhibition installations rather than the themes of their projects), meaning that they therefore didn’t fit into my overarching themes of “landscape PHOTOGRAPHY and memory”
    • I have therefore decided that I will not be using these pieces of work as some of my case studies
  • Work that “…[Responds] to the spatialization of time, a number of artists revisit history and collective memory under the sign of a journey…”
    • Pierre Huyghe
    • Rirkrit Tiravanija
    • Philippe Parreno
    • Simon Starling
    • Joachim Koester
    • Liam Gillick
    • Jun Nguyen-Hatsushiba
    • Paul Chan
    • Again, after being introduced to these names, alongside the sentence quoted above,  I decided to do some brief research into them as I thought that their work could possibly be included as different case studies through the fact that they could possibly link into one of my overarching themes of “memory” as they supposedly look at “collective memory” within their projects
    • Again, similar to the artists researched above, after conducting some brief research into these artists works, I soon realised that they were all either sculptors or performative artists and that they (therefore) didn’t fit in to one of my overarching themes of “landscape PHOTOGRAPHY”
      • Although, they do essentially link into my overarching theme of “memory” as, as suggested from the quoted sentences, they look into the idea of “collective memory” through their pieces
        • However, although this does link to the general idea of “memory”, I am not looking into the idea of “collective memory”, but more into the idea of “personal memories”
    • I have therefore decided that I will not be using these pieces of work as some of my case studies

Quotes:

  • Possible introduction/conclusion quotes?
    • “… A central place for memory not merely as a subject of recent art but as a determining factor in the self-identity and critical self-evaluation of artistic practice itself.” – Page 16
    • Memories are our existence, and art is their system of replication.” – Page 78
      • The quotes could be used as possible introduction/conclusion quotes as they can be used to suggest the overall reason as to why I have been looking at the particular topic of “Memory and Place”
      • However, as they are talking about memory in conjunction with art, rather than photography, I would have to perhaps alter them slightly to relate more to my paper
  • This everyday yet strange-when-you-think-about-it experience might be comparable in complexity to the operations of memory and defining the ‘place’ of the memory-image in relation to real space and time, except that this is not a subjective experience of reverie, whether voluntary or involuntary.” – Page 17
    • After re-reading this quote, I am unsure as to the simplified reasoning behind it and noticed that I simply selected this as a “relevant” quote as it not only discusses the ideas of “reverie memories” (found in the first section of my Symposium essay plan) and “place as memory triggers” (found in the second section of my Symposium essay plan), but it also talks about the idea of “Voluntary and Involuntary memories” which has been previously researched in conjunction with Proust’s “In Search of Lost Time” (please see above)
    • However, as I am unsure as to the meaning behind the quote, although it does link to these two sections within my essay, I don’t think that I will be able to use it within my final paper
  • In their [spaces and realms of memory] simplest forms, such spaces can be a physical place where a significant event took place but they can also take the form of archives, memorial events or re-enactments.” – Page 20
    • This quote has introduced me to the ideas of spaces and realms of memory and, as it has simply suggested that these memory realms/spaces can be a physical space (or landscape/place) where a significant event took place, it therefore greatly relates to my second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing “landscapes as memory triggers” – these realms/spaces of memory can include the landscape that triggers an individuals memory (described in the first part of the quote)
  • Repetition, Recognition, and Recollection
    • Art historian Briony Fer likewise focuses on a primary aspect of memory: repetition. Countering an ‘empathic’ model aesthetic experience (associated with immersiveness, spectacle and material excess)…” – Page 21
    • Memory, in its alternate form of recognition, progressively sets one image beside other chronologically separated images…” – Page 33
    • Merely to remember something is meaningless unless the remembered image is combined with a moment in the present affording a view of the same object or objects.” – Page 33
    • If an image or sensation out of the past is to be truly recognized in the Proustian sense and not merely recollected, it must be summoned back by a related experience in the present and after a period of absence.” – Page 40
      • These quotes all relate to memories primary aspect of repetition and they are essentially suggesting that repetition is experienced through the recognition of a memory trigger (that has also been experienced in the past), which allows the individual to recollect the memory that is associated to the memory trigger
      • These ideas would therefore greatly relate to the first two sections of my Symposium essay (that include “what is it about photography that allows us to reminisce and remember” – section one, and “places as memory triggers” – section two)
        • They will be able to provide the psychological stand-point on the idea of remembrance that would then allow me to contextualise and relate these theories to the more photographic ideologies I am planning on discussing (which include ideas like “the photographic trace” – section two)
  • The less memory is experienced from within, the greater its need for external props and tangible reminders of that which no longer exists except qua memory.” – Page 62
    • This quote is essentially saying that the less an individual remembers a particular event, the more likely they are to need a particular memory trigger in order to recollect the memory of the particular event
    • This quote therefor link into the second section of my Symposium essay where i am planning on discussing the ideas of “landscapes as memory triggers”

 


 

Removing the Third Section of My Essay (“False Memories and Imagination”):

As I continued to work through my reading research (seen above under numerous “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading“), I soon noticed that a majority of the ideas I was being introduced to greatly related to both the first and second sections of the essay. I have therefore decided to remove the third section of my essay (that was planned to look into “false memories and imagination”) as, like suggested in the “First Draft Feedback” session, I have been provided with relevant theories and concepts surrounding the first two sections that will allow me to fill out my essay.

The, now removed, third section, as suggested above under “One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan” “First Draft Feedback”, is also a very broad topic in itself and could quite easily have been the basis of the whole of my essay, as well as the whole of a 10,000 word dissertation!

As I continue with my research, I will now, therefore, only be focussing on the first two sections discussed within my Symposium essay plan (which has been included below, again, as a tool to refer back to).

Brief Structure of Symposium Presentation – Draft 2

 


 

Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5):

After reading “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art”, I then read Memory, History, Forgetting” by Paul Ricoeur. As Paul Ricoeur is one of the leading theorists in memory, this book introduced me to a wide range of possible ideas that relate to the first two sections that I am looking at within my Symposium (which was to be expected).

Below, (as I have now decided to remove the third section of the essay – see above under “Removing the Third Section of My Essay (“False Memories and Imagination”)“) I have therefore included the different themes and ideas that I found useful for these first two sections, along with some of my ideas based on how I could include them within my essay:

  • The conjunction between (external) stimulation and (internal) resemblance will remain, for us, the crux of the entire problematic of memory.” – Page 17
    • When I found this quote, I realised that it greatly relates to the second section of my Symposium essay (that will be talking about “place as memory triggers”)
    • This is because it is suggesting that the “external stimulation” is the place that is acting as a memory trigger (it is external/outside and stimulates the recollection of a memory), and the “internal resemblance” links to the memories that this place will trigger (memories are internal as they are stored in the brain, and they will resemble an aspect of the memory trigger)
  • One speaks of it only retrospectively on the basis of precise experiences which have as their model the recognition of images of the past. These experiences make us think, after the fact, that many memories, perhaps among the most precious, childhood memories, have not been definitively erased but simply rendered inaccessible, unavailable, which makes us say that one forgets less than one thinks or fears.” – Page 416
    • This quote is suggesting that a variety of different memories, including reverie memories that I am looking at within my Symposium), are not usually completely forgotten, but are simply rendered inaccessible
    • This quote therefore relates to my second section of my essay where I am discussing “place as memory triggers” as the memories are essentially made accessible through the introduction to different memory triggers (that can include places)
    • This quote could also relate to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” (that was discussed under the idea of “Phantasy” in “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” that was edited by Geoffrey Batchen – see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“) as this preconscious theory suggests that [reverie] memories are stored in an individuals preconsciousness and are recollected back into the consciousness through the introduction to a primary favourable condition or memory trigger – these memories are inaccessible in the preconsciousness and are made accessible when they have been recollected back into the consciousness through the recognition of a memory trigger
  • Things and people do not simply appear, they reappear as being the same, and it is in accordance with this sameness of reappearing that we remember them.” – Page 23
    • This quote greatly relates to the idea(s) of “Repetition (Recognition and Remembrance)” that was discussed in “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)”)
    • This quote is essentially saying that memory is recollected through the repetition of a present memory trigger that has also been experienced in the past (and is therefore associated with the recollected memory), and that it is this act of repetition that is the reason why memories are recollected
    • These quote will therefore also greatly relate to the second section of my Symposium essay that will be discussing “places as memory triggers”
  • Types of Recollection
    • The primary distinction between laborious recollection and spontaneous recollection (188-203), where spontaneous recollection can be considered the zero-degree of searching and laborious recollection its purposeful form.” – Page 28
      • This quote discusses the two main types of recollection which include “Spontaneous Recollection” and “Laborious Recollection” – “Spontaneous Recollection” is the recollection where an individual is accidentally confronted with a memory trigger that bring previously inaccessible memories into the consciousness, whereas, “Laborious Recollection” is where an individual purposefully goes to seek out these inaccessible memories through searching for different memory triggers
      • I therefore think that the type of recollection that will relate to the second section of my essay (that will be talking about “memory triggers”) is “Laborious Recollection” as I will be looking at the idea of individuals wanting to actively reconnect to their deceased loved ones through the use of different memory trigger
  • Mnemonic Modes
    • Casey… what he calls ‘mnemonic Modes’, namely Reminding, Reminiscing, Recognizing” – Page 37
    • Reminding… Might we say memento, memory-aid, pense-bete, or in the experimental sciences, points of reference, reminders?… They are found a second time in the form of external points of reference for recall: photographs, postcards, diaries, receipts, mementos…” – Page 38
    • “… Reminiscing, this is a phenomenon more strongly marked by activity than reminding; it consists in making the past live again by evoking it together with others, each helping the other to remember shared events or knowledge, the memories of one person serving as a reminder for the memories of the other.” – Page 38
    • Recognizing… We recognize as being the same the present memory and the first impression intended as other. In this way we are referred back by the phenomenon of recognition to the enigma of memory as presence of the absent encountered previously.” – Page 39
    • The moment of recollection then is the moment of recognition.” – Page 41
      • These quotes also greatly relate to the ideas of “Repetition, Recognition and Remembrance” that was discussed in “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading“)
      • These quotes are simply saying that “Reminding” refers to external points of reference for recall which are essentially the memory triggers that remind individuals of the once inaccessible memories, and that the process of “Recollection” refers to the main aspect of repetition which relates to the recognition of this present memory trigger (that has also been experienced in the past)
        • These quotes therefore provide a backbone to the previously discussed thoughts and ideas of this topic (discussed in “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr which is found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas After Reading”) as it allows me to offer a credible source that actually discusses my previous personal ideas
      • These quotes (as with the quotes from “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr) therefore relate to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing the idea of “place as memory triggers”
  • Memory Places
    • These memory places function for the most part after the manner of reminders, offering in turn a support for failing memory, a struggle in the war against forgetting, even the silent plea of dead memory.” – Page 41
    • Returning to the memory places, we can attempt, following Casey, to recover the sense of spatiality on the basis of the abstract conception of geometrical space.” – Page 42
      • These quotes have introduced me to the concept of “Memory Places” which, as suggested in one of the quotes, are also associated to Casey’s theories on “Mnemonic Modes” (that have been looked at above)
      • “Memory Places” are essentially the places that trigger different memories, which means that this greatly relates to the second section I am planning on including within my essay that discusses “landscapes/places as memory triggers”
  • Remembering is active
    • “… Remembering is not only welcoming, receiving an image from the past, it is also searching for it, ‘doing’ something.” – Page 56
      • This quote is suggesting that remembering is active as it suggests that individuals can only recollect inaccessible memories through the active searching of memory triggers or the searching for the memory that is associated with a memory trigger that they have been presented with
      • This quote therefore greatly relates to ideas discussed above to do with “Spontaneous and Laborious Recollection” (that talks about recollection through the recognition of different memory triggers) and can therefore relate to the second section of my essay that will be discussing “places as memory triggers”
  • Memory is personal
    • “… Memory does seem to be radically singular: my memories are not yours. The memories of one person cannot be transferred into the memory of another. As mine, memory is a model of mineness, of private possession, for all the experiences of the subject… Memory is of the past, and this past is that of my impressions, in this sense, this past is my past.” – Page 96
      • This quote is simply suggesting that memories are very subjective and personal – everyone is different which means that everyone will have different (types of) memories, different ways of recollection, different types of memory triggers, etc.
      • This general idea surrounding the fact that memories are subjective and personal may be useful to include within my essay, in order to provide evidence of the fact that I know this is the case and that the idea of “memory triggers” that I will go onto discuss (in the second section of my essay) will vary depending on the individual
  • Places as memory triggers links to the memorization technique of Loci
    • This art consists essentially in associating images with places (topoi, loci) organized in rigorous systems corresponding to a house, a public space, and architectural setting. The rules of this art are of two sorts: the first govern the selection of places, the second govern the mental images of the things one wishes to remember and which the art assigns to the places selected.” – Page 62
      • The idea that I take away from this quote is that the reason behind why people best remember memories through their association with different places (which was discussed when looking into “The Art of Memory” by Frances A. Yates under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)“) is related to the idea of the “Method of Loci”
        • What I mean by this, is that the “Method of Loci” is a memorisation technique that works on the idea that people best remember objects/memories through their association with a different place
        • Memories are therefore easily remembered if they have been associated with a different place/landscape which can relate to my ideas of “places as memory triggers” (which I am planning on looking at in section two of my essay) by suggesting that places are therefore very powerful memory trigger
  • Vestigia – Memory images and representations
    • “… We see the past only on the basis of vestigia – images or imprints – present to the soul…” – Page 352
    • It is terms of representation that the phenomenology of memory, following Plato and Aristotle, described the mnemonic phenomenon in that what is remembered is given as an image of what previously was seen, heard, experienced, learned, acquired.” – Page 352
      • What I take away from these quotes is that memories and memory triggers are representations of the past that are being experienced in the present, and that they (memories and memory triggers) are classed as “representations” as they will have differed from the reality of the past event by going through the process of recollection and mnemonic modes
      • This idea could therefore generally link into my essay as it is discussing the overall idea of memories being representations, but it could also fit into the more specific section of my essay where I’m planning on looking at “memory triggers”
  • Why do we forget?
    • “… Forgetting projects amounting to omissions, to selective ignorance, reveals a sly side of the unconscious when it is placed on the defensive.” – Page 447
    • The strategies of forgetting are directly grafted upon this work of configuration: one can always recount differently, by elimination, by shifting the emphasis, by recasting the protagonists of the action in a different light along with the outlines of the action.” – Page 448
      • When I was introduced to these ideas of forgetting, I thought that it might be good to briefly talk about the “why we forget” in the introduction to the essay as a way of giving a brief background into the idea of forgetting of memories before moving on to the idea of recollecting particular [reverie] memories – in simple terms, you cannot recollect a memory if it hasn’t first been forgotten so I should at least briefly look at the idea of forgetting
      • The “unconscious when it is placed on the defensive” can also relate to the idea of mourning and suggests one of the reasons why individuals may forget – to protect themselves from feeling hurt/upset
        • This idea can therefore link to why an individual may want to remember these “forgotten” memories and can also relate to the idea of “reconnecting to a deceased loved one” (that is planned to be included in the second section of my essay)

 

After reading “Memory, History, Forgetting“, I then moved onto the final book I was using for research called Matter and Memory” by Henri Bergson. Henri Bergson is another main theorist relating to Memory (and was mentioned a lot in some of my other reading resources including Paul Ricoeur’s “Memory, History, Forgetting”), so this book obviously introduced me to a lot of new concepts and theories that I could include within my Symposium essay. Below I have included these concepts, along with specific quotes relating to the theory, and some of my own ideas on their relevance to my essay:

  • By this, memory is made possible the intelligent, or rather intellectual, recognition of a perception already experienced; in it, we take refuge every time that, in the search of a particular image, we remount the slope of our past.” – Page 92
    • What I took away from this quote is that we are able to reconnect to our past (“remount the slope of our past“) through the fact that we can recognise a certain memory trigger (“a perception already experienced“) that can result in the recollection of a past memory
    • This quote therefore links to the second section of my essay where I am planning on talking about “memory triggers”, as well as the ideas of “recognition” and “repetition” that were discussed in both “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr (found above in “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“), and “Memory, History, Forgetting” by Paul Ricoeur (found above in “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)“)
  • Memories which we believed abolished then reappear with striking completeness; we live over again, in all their detail, forgotten scenes of childhood…” – Page 200
    • This quote is suggesting that memories (including childhood and reverie memories) appear to be completely forgotten and are then suddenly recollected or “reappear” (through the use of a memory trigger)
    • This quote therefore relates to Ricoeur’s theories of inaccessible memories (in “Memory, History, Forgetting” found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)“) which also relates to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” (that was discussed under the idea of “Phantasy” in “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” that was edited by Geoffrey Batchen – see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“) as this preconscious theory suggests that “inaccessible”(or in the case of this quote, “abolished”) [reverie] memories are stored in an individuals preconsciousness and are recollected (“reappear”) back into the consciousness through the introduction to a primary favourable condition or memory trigger
    • This quote therefore relates to my second section of my essay where I am discussing “place as memory triggers” as the quote (along with the other theories that can be related to it) is suggesting that memories appear to be forgotten until and individual is introduced to a memory trigger
  • We start from a ‘virtual state’ which we lead onwards, step by step, through a series of different planes of consciousness, up to the goal where it is materialized in an actual perception; that is to say, up to the point where it becomes a present, active state…” – Page 319
    • This quote also greatly relates to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” (that was discussed under the idea of “Phantasy” in “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” that was edited by Geoffrey Batchen – see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“) as it is suggesting that memories travel through different planes of consciousness (starting from the preconscious and working its way up to the consciousness), until it becomes “a present, active state” within the consciousness
    • As this quote therefore links to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” it can therefore briefly relate to my second section of my essay where I am discussing “place as memory triggers”
  • The brain is a storehouse
    • “… Just because they [memories] are at the point of contact between consciousness and matter, and because even the adversaries of materialism have no objection to treating the brain as a storehouse of memories.” – Page 81
      • The main points that I took away from this quote is that memories are the point of contact between consciousness and matter as they can perceive matter (things, objects, places, etc.) from a moment in time and collect them in the consciousness in the form of memories, and that the brain acts as a storehouse for memory (it basically stores memories)
      • The first section of the quote therefore link in to the overall idea of memories which I am (obviously) looking at throughout my essay, but the send section of the quote, where it discusses storing different memories, also relates to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” (that was discussed under the idea of “Phantasy” in “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” that was edited by Geoffrey Batchen – see above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“) as, as discussed numerous time before, the preconsciousness is where most memories are stored
      • Once again, as this quote therefore links to the idea of the “Freudian Preconsciousness” it can therefore briefly relate to my second section of my essay where I am discussing “place as memory triggers”
  • Two Forms of Memory
    • The two forms of memory: the past survives as a bodily habit, or as an independent recollection.” – Page 86
    • But then the practical, and consequently the usual function of memory, the utilizing of past experience for present action, – recognition, in short, – must take place in two different ways. Sometimes it lies in the action itself, and in the automatic setting in motion of a mechanism adapted to the circumstances; at other times it implies an effort of the mind which seeks in the past, in order to apply them to the present, those representations which are best able to enter into the present situation.” – Page 87
      • These two quotes introduced me to two different types of memory, and, after looking over the explanations surrounding these particular types of memory, I soon realised that the type of memory that I will be looking at within my essay is that of the “independent recollection”, as this is where the mind looks into the past (due to the introduction to a present memory trigger) that brings this past memory into the present
      • This idea of “independent recollection” therefore relates to the second section that I am planning on including in my essay that will be discussing different “memory triggers”
  • Remembering – detaching from the present
    • To call up the past in a form of an image, we must be able to withdraw ourselves from the action of the moment, we must have the power to value the useless, we must have the will to dream.” – Page 94
    • Whenever we are trying to recover a recollection, to call up some period of our history, we become conscious of an act sui generis by which we detach ourselves from the present in order to replace ourselves, first in the past in general, then in a certain region of the past – a work of adjustment, something like the focusing of the camera.” – Page 171
      • What I took away from these quotes was that, in order to bring up a memory from the past, we must detach ourselves from the present by allowing our minds to transport us to the past memory
      • This process would be initiated through the introduction to a memory trigger as this will allow our mind to “dream” back to these past events (removing ourselves from the present) through the process of independent recollect (looked at above)
        • This idea also links back to the more specific idea and definition of “Reverie memories” (that I will be discussing throughout my essay) as these memories have been defined as “A state where consciousness can slip back towards a more dreamlike state where the imagination, freed from the firm direction of focused thought and action, can begin to ‘drift’ back into all the remembered spaces, events and feelings which are in our minds
      • This idea therefore relates to my overall essay through its relation to “reverie memories” as well as linking to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing “memory triggers”
  • Remembering (is active)
    • It is alleged that the present perception dives into the depths of memory in search of the remembrance of the previous perception which resembles it: the sense of recognition would thus come from bringing together, or a blending, of perception and memory.” – Page 106
    • As a rule, we desire to go back along the course of the past and discover the known, localized, personal memory-image which is related to the present, an effort is necessary, whereby we draw back from the act to which perception inclines us…” – Page 113
      • These quotes relate to the ideas surrounding the fact that “remembering is active” which was looked at in Ricoeur’s “Memory, History, Forgetting” (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)“)
        • These quotes are suggesting that “remembering is active” as the present perception (acting memory trigger) allows the individuals mind to dive into “the depths of memory” in order to search for and recognise the memory that is associated to the memory trigger
        • As with the previous “remembering is active” theories that were discussed in Ricoeur’s “Memory, History, Forgetting” (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)“) these quotes therefore, also greatly relate to ideas to do with “Spontaneous and Laborious Recollection” (that are also discussed in Ricoeur’s “Memory, History, Forgetting“), which talks about recollection through the recognition of different memory triggers, and can therefore relate to the second section of my essay that will be discussing “places as memory triggers”
  • Recognition
    • … The progressive movement by which past and present come into contact with each other, that is to say, the process of recognition.” – Page 316
      • This quote, again, links to previous ideas about “recognition” that were discussed within “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)”) and “Memory, History, Forgetting” by Paul Ricoeur (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)”) as it is suggesting that “the past and the present come into contact with each other” as an individual recognises a present memory trigger that is associated with a past event/memory
      • This quote therefore links to the second section of my essay where I am planning on  discussing “memory triggers”

 


 

Reoccurring Themes:

Although, as stated above, I have now completed all of the reading research for my Symposium essay, I do still have a couple of podcasts and TED Talks to listen to (found below under “Further Research – Podcasts and Ted Talks”), to finally complete my research section of this module.

However, before I move on to these different research resources, I thought that this would be a good opportunity to briefly look back at the book research I have conducted (after the “First Draft Feedback” Session), as a way of identifying recurring themes that I will consider including in my final essay structure. These recurring themes have simply been listed below (along with the books that introduced me to them):

  • Types and Forms of memory
    • Including involuntary memory (“In Search of Lost Time”) and independent recollection (“Matter and Memory”)
  • Punctum (“Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida”)
    • Including the ‘new’ punctum of Time and Eidos (or essence)
  • Ideas surrounding spaces of consciousness and memory
    • Including planes of consciousness (“Matter and Memory”), consciousness, preconsciousness, and unconsciousness (“Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida”), and spaces and realms of memory (“Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida”)
  • Repetition and memory (“Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art”, “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” and “Memory, History, Forgetting”)
    • Including repetition in conjunction with memory triggers
  • Recollection and different types of recollection (“Memory, History, Forgetting” and “Matter and Memory”)
    • Including spontaneous and laborious recollection (“Matter and Memory”), independent recollection (“Matter and Memory”), and recollection in regards to recognition and repetition (“Memory, History, Forgetting”)
  • Remembering is active (“Memory, History, Forgetting” and Matter and Memory”)
    • Including connecting to inaccessible memories and searching for memory triggers

 


 

Further Research – Podcasts and Ted Talks:

As mentioned above, to complete my research section of this module, I have a couple of podcasts and TED Talks that I need to listen to. Below you will find the name of the podcasts/TED Talks, the links to where they can be found, and any quotes that I thought would be relevant to include in my essay along with my thought process behind how they are relevant.

(Please note, the “Death in the Contemporary” podcasts where suggested by lecturer Anthony Luvera during my “First Draft Feedback” session (see above) when it was suggested that I look into the theme of “Death Photography”. Now, although I have previously stated that my essay isn’t looking into the idea of “Death Photography” (for more information please see “Discussing the Ideas of “Relationship Between Image and Text” and “Death Photography”), I also stated that I would still use the suggested resources to see if they related to the theories I will actually be discussing. As for the two TED Talks, these were suggested by course peer, Becky Woodall, after observing my First Draft Presentation).

 

The Fiction of Memory (TED Talk) by Elizabeth Loftus:

  • “…I don’t study when people forget. I study the opposite: when they remember, when they remember things that didn’t happen or remember things that were different from the way they really were. I study false memories.”
    • This quote would have related to the third section of my essay that discussed “False Memories”, however, as stated above (under “Removing the Third Section of My Essay (“False Memories and Imagination”)”), I have now decided to remove this section from my essay
  • “… Many people believe that memory works like a recording device. You just record the information, then you call it up and play it back when you want to answer questions or identify images. But decades of work in psychology has shown that this just isn’t true.”
    • It may be a good idea to include a section, towards the beginning of the essay, discussing how people perceive memories/how they think they work, before going on to the main parts of my essay (particularly the second section) where I can inform the reader/audience of different types of recollection and different ideas surrounding memory triggers

 

The Riddle of Experience vs. Memory by Daniel Kahneman:

  • “… We might be thinking of ourselves and of other people in terms of two selves. There is an experiencing self, who lives in the present and knows the present, is capable of re-living the past, but basically it has only the present.”
  • “And then there is a remembering self, and the remembering self is the one that keeps score, and maintains the story of our life…”
  • “So we have the remembering self and the experiencing self, and they’re really quite distinct. The biggest difference between them is in the handling of time.” 
    • This idea could easily relate to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing “memory triggers”, as it is suggesting that the “experiencing self” is the self that lives and experiences the present (and therefore present memory triggers), and that the “remembering self” is the self that, once the “experiencing self” has recognised a present memory trigger, recalls and recollects the memories associated with the memory trigger
    • These quotes could also possibly relate to the idea of the “new punctum of time” that was discussed in “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” (found above under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)“) which suggests that the “new punctum of time” relates to the general idea of memories by describing and explain ing them as “representations of what has already been”

 

Death in the Contemporary: Death and Trauma:

http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2012/12/death-and-the-contemporary-death-and-trauma/

Margaret Iversen

  • “Photographs are more direct, more emotive, more intimate.”
    • This quote could perhaps be included within the essay to suggest one of the reasons why some photographs act as such powerful memory triggers, which will obviously relate to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing “memory triggers”
    • This quote could also possibly relate to Barthes’ original theory on “Punctum” (discussed above in “Camera Lucida” which can be found in “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (2)“), as, due to the fact that “photographs are more direct, more emotive, more intimate“, they can therefore provide individuals with a personal “pricking” and “wounding”, which, as suggested above, can relate to “landscape [photograph] memory triggers” as they can then begin the process of recollection of a personal memory

Robert Eaglestone

  • [Ludwig Josef Johann] Wittgenstein said that: Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death.”
    • When I listened to this quote, the first thing that sprung to mind was that this quote could be easily disputed in the sense that everyone experiences death when people they know pass on
    • This could therefore relate to the idea of “reconnecting with deceased loved ones” (that is planning on being included the second section of Symposium essay) as it could possibly introduce the reasons behind searching for particular memories and memory triggers (to reconnect to the deceased individuals)

Jennifer Pollard

  • Looking at the aftermath of 9/11 she looks at “The various types of attachments made with photographs as a way of coping with trauma and dealing with trauma and processing the experience of the events…”
    • Although this quote clearly relates greatly to the idea of death (that I am only briefly looking at through the idea of “reconnecting to deceased loved ones” in the second section of my essay) I feel that this quote could relate to this idea of “reconnecting to deceased loved ones” as I am essentially exploring “various types of of attachments made with photographs (the “memory trigger”) as a way of coping with trauma and dealing with trauma and processing the experience of the events (the idea of “reconnecting to a deceased individual”)”
  • “…The desire to contain and hold the experience through photographs.”
    • This quote could perhaps relate to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing the idea of “reconnecting to deceased loved ones” as I could use it to suggest that individuals try to “hold the experience” of the deceased individual through photographs and landscapes (the “memory triggers” – which obviously also relates to the “memory trigger” aspect of the second section)
  • “To use Freudian terms, using photographs in this way, the attempt to use photographs in this way, has more to do with repeating and acting out than it does with remembering or with working through.”
    • This quote obviously links to the reoccurring theme of “repetition” (that has been identified above under both “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr that is found under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)”, and “Memory, History, Forgetting” by Paul Ricoeur that is found under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (5)”) as it is suggesting that photographs capture and therefore repeat a section of a past event, which, as also suggested above, provides one of the reasons why photographs are often seen as memory triggers through the idea of the “photographic trace” (freezing a moment in time)
    • This quote therefore links in to the second section of my essay where I am planning on discussing “memory triggers”

 

Death in the Contemporary: Death and Space:

http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2012/10/death-and-the-contemporary-death-and-space/

Tom Hunter

  • “But I do love that ambiguity that you always get with photography, we’re not sure if it’s dead or if it’s alive. Which photography does so well because when we take a picture, in some ways it is death itself, it is a banner, something that can never be repeated, and it’s something that is lain down that can never change and can never be repeated again…”
    • When I listened to this quote I, once again, couldn’t help but think about the fact that the idea discussing how the experience captured within a photo “could never be repeated“, could be easily disputed within my essay
    • What I mean by this, is that I could quite easily argue that although this particular moment in time, that has been captured and frozen in a photo, can “never be repeated“, the whole act of using different photographs as memory triggers means that we can still return to this moment in time, “repeat” this moment in time, psychologically
    • This argument therefore relates to the the reoccurring theme of “repetition” (that has been identified above under both “Memory: Documents of Contemporary Art” edited by Ian Farr that is found under “Research – More Specific Ideas and Reflections After Reading (4)”, and “Memory, History, Forgetting” by Paul Ricoeur that is found under “Research – More Specific Ideas After and Reflections Reading (5)”) and therefore the second section of my essay where I will be talking about “memory triggers”

David Bate

  • “All photographs, of any kind, suggest the space beyond our own. Whether real or fake, the photograph is like a portal to another world…”
    • This quote simply relates to the ideas of “memory triggers”, that I am planning on including within the second section of my essay, as it is suggesting that photographs act as a “portal to another world” which links to the idea that photographs acting as memory triggers can act as a portal to the past through initiating the process of recollection of certain past memories

 


 

Revising the Structure of my Essay and Finalising Case Studies:

After completing all of my research for this particular module, the next logical step for me to take is to revise my second draft of my Brief Structure Plan to create a more in-depth structure that includes some of the ideas and theories (as well as the chosen case studies) I have looked at throughout my research process. Below you will be able to find a section relating to the choosing of the case studies, as well as a section dedicated to the creation of my Symposium Essay Plan.

 

Case Studies:

In regards to the case studies, having looked at a numerous amount of possible choices through the development of my ideas (including Paul Seawright, Ann Chwatsky, Tom Hunter, David Birkin, Idris Kahn, David Farrell, PinePoint, etc.), whilst thinking about the main topics I want to discuss within my essay, I decided to stick with my original choices of Ann Chwatsky and Mikael Levin (stated above under “Deciding the Case Studies“). This is because their work fits in to the overarching themes of the presentation (landscape, photography and memory), whilst also relating to some of the more specific sections I plan on discussing throughout my essay.

Please note, as I am now focusing primarily on the writing and development of my essay (instead of further research), you will therefore be able to see the continuing development of how these case studies map into/apply to the specific themes of the paper through the development of my essay. (I.e. as the essay progresses through different stages, the analysis of these chosen case studies will be adapted to support the discussions and arguments within the essay – which will be evidenced in the drafts of the essay rather than reflections on the blog).

Ann Chwatsky’s “When I Was A Girl“:

Mikael Levin’s “War Story“:

 

 

Symposium Essay Plan:

In this section you will be able to find my previous (second) Brief Structure of Symposium Plan, my new, hand written essay plans, and my revised Brief Structure Plan (called “Symposium Essay Plan – Draft 1”):

Brief Structure of Symposium Presentation – Draft 2

Hand-Written Plans:

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Symposium Essay Plan – Draft 1

 


 

CHRISTMAS! – Writing Drafts of Essay’s and Presentations:

Over the Christmas holiday, I spent my time using the Symposium Essay Plan to create my first ‘official’ draft for my essay. When I return to university in the New Year, I plan on sharing my first drafts (my essay and my presentation) with Anthony Luvera and the group that I will be placed in for the Group Tutorial session scheduled on the first day back.

The first draft of my Symposium essay, as well as the visual presentation that I created over the Christmas break can be found below:

Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Draft 1

Presentation – Draft 1

 


 

Group Tutorial with Anthony Luvera:

On Tuesday 6th January 2015, I attended my first day of lectures in the New Year that was dedicated to the Symposium Module. One of the sessions for this day required us to be split into four different groups where we were asked to attend a group tutorial with Anthony Luvera at a dedicated time. Within these tutorials, we took it in turns to discuss where we were at in regards to our presentation for our Symposium, before receiving feedback from Anthony and the group.

In this group tutorial, I presented the first draft of my essay and visual presentation. As it was a group tutorial, Anthony didn’t have time to read the essay in full but has suggested that I may be able to send it to him or Kate McMillian for feedback, in the near future. Below you will find the first draft of my visual presentation along with my personal ideas regarding what I want to change, and feedback I received throughout the tutorial:

Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Draft 1

Presentation – Draft 1

Personal Ideas – What I want to change:

  • I need to work on the conclusion – Although I have successfully wrapped up the main points of the essay in a succinct manner, I feel that the first part of the conclusion is simply a repeat of the introduction (I want the introduction and conclusion to relate in terms of writing styles but feel that they are too similar); I need to make my conclusion punchier, more impressive; it should reward the reader/audience
  • I need to add more slides (between quotes) too my presentation – I am planning on making slides that show the questions I pose to the audience at the beginning of some of the sections to allow them to relate the theory I give back to the question I am answering

Feedback:

  • You need to think of a more creative title – can you incorporate the first question that you pose to the audience within the title?
  • The opening question is immediately answered in the following, simple sentence – This needs to be reconsidered as you have practically given the 10-minute presentation in 7 words!
  • You should include more in-text citations – some sentences sound as though they have been formed through the influence of different ideas, although you haven’t directly quoted them, you still need to cite them within the text
  • The presentation is too text heavy – I understand that you want to get the key quotes across, but at the moment it looks more like a lecturers presentation; you need visual examples to anchor the text; you can also get rid of the introductory artist slides (for example “Ann Chwatsky “WHEN I WAS A GIRL”…”) and simply incorporate this information into the titles given with the visual examples

 

Although I feel that I am now at a point where I need to receive individual feedback from either Anthony Luvera or Kate McMillan, and am therefore waiting for the opportunity to send my work to them for individual analysis, I now plan on making these suggested feedback changes, allowing me to create a second draft of both my essay and my presentation.

 


 

Sending off my Draft and Waiting For Feedback:

As stated above, I have now been offered the opportunity to send off my newly edited draft (that incorporates ideas suggested in the Group Tutorial above) to Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan, in order to receive feedback (please see below). Whilst waiting for this feedback, as a way of keeping productive, I decided that I would look through the research I have already conducted to see if there were any sections that I thought I could possibly add to my essay. By doing this, I found that there were a couple of aspects in my earlier research that could relate nicely to some of the sections and concepts discussed within my essay. These revisited research aspects can be found below, underneath a title indicating the section of my essay that they will best fit, followed by a copy of my essay that identifies where I am considering placing these aspects:

Essay Sent Off For Feedback – Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Draft 5

Independent Recollection Section:

  • “Aristotle distinguishes between memory and reminiscence, or recollection. Recollection is the recovery of knowledge or sensation which one had before. It is a deliberate effort to find one’s way among the contents of memory, hunting among its contents for what one is trying to recollect.” (Yates 1994: 48)

Repetition Section:

  • “Learn it by heart” – Page 30
    • The method of memorizing the verse will not work by itself, says the author of Ad Herennium. We must go over the verse three or four times, that is learn it by heart in the usual way, and then represent the words by means of images.” (Yates 1994: 30)

Remembrance and Associative Places Section:

  • He gives an absolutely rational reason as to why the places may help memory, because we know from experience that a place does call up associations in memory.” (Yates 1994: 38)

General aspects I’m considering including:

  • “For Semon, using a well-established metaphor, stimuli inscribes themselves on the memory and remain as traces, termed “engrams” by Semon, which can be reactivated under certain circumstances.” (Cole 1996: 104)
  • Memory Places (Ricoeur 2006: 41-42)
  • Vestigia – Memory images and representations (Ricoeur 2006: 352)
    • Memories are representations of the past in the present

 Essay with Incorporated Changes – Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Sections to Add

Although I think these will be useful for my essay, and am therefore considering including them in my final script, as I am pretty tight on the time limit as it is, I have decided to wait for feedback from Anthony and Kate before I definitely add these sections to the essay.

 


 

Second One-to-One with Kate McMillan:

On Tuesday 20th Januray 2015, my day consisted of attending a one-to-one tutorial with Kate McMillan, in order to discuss my draft Symposium essay that I handed in for feedback. During this session, Kate showed me a couple of notes that she made regarding my essay, and we spent time discussing different aspects that she thought I should consider. Below you will find a copy of the drafts I submitted for feedback, along with the feedback notes she sent me, and an audio recording (and accompanying notes) of the tutorial:

Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Holly Constantine

Presentation – Draft 2

Kate McMillan’s Notes:

Dear Holly,

It is a nice project and there are a few critical questions to consider.

Is landscape immutable? I would argue that it is not. Consider the construction of the idea of landscape – a culturally formulated idea. Consider the different cultural perspectives of landscape – Chinese, Indigenous, European. ‘Landscape’ is a falsehood in many ways.

The landscape (and the artwork) mediates a memory – functions as a memory trigger. Consider Proust.

The image of a landscape conjures up the landscape that invites other sensory experiences (sound, smell, touch). The image functions as a bridge or umbilical cord to those other sensory moments, which powerfully connect us with memories. 

Robert Macfarlane considers a particularly British experience of landscape in art and literature. Watch this YouTube lecture – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5q1IK-O5Ypg

Isn’t all history only memory? Therefore, ‘memory’ serves to remind us of the fallibility and subjectivity of history. It is not absolute and there is a truth, just a series of shifting recollections.

The question – why do we forget (?) suggests that there is a defined and absolute truth waiting to be rediscovered. Perhaps thought is more about a constant remembering that shifts and moves through time. The past is in the present.

It will be important to nail some of these philosophical points/queries to bring rigour to the presentation. It needs to go deeper. Think about how the artworks you show address these queries too.

Kate McMillan

 

Audio Recording (and Accompanying Notes) of Tutorial:

One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan: Feedback for my Symposium Essay from Holly Constantine on Vimeo.

(Please excuse the poor quality of the audio, a lot of my course peers where in the room discussing their own ideas for Symposiums and Final Major Projects).

  • We aren’t going back to a pure thought, memory or experience – our memories change and landscapes can trigger the re-remembering of a different place
    • This is a philosophical query because it suggests that all history and all memory is shifting and they are not absolute
    • History, the retelling of the past, is fragmented and subjective
  • What’s missing are salient, philosophical points
  • The past is with us always – the past is in the present and our access to it is shifting all the time
  • The image of the landscape is different from the landscape
    • This needs to be made clearer
    • The image of the landscape is another form of mediation, just like memory (in a way)
  • It’s important to think about the process of learning, making meaning, and the way that something mediates the pathway to another thing
    • How we have a thought in our mind that links to the landscape that links to a memory of a past event
    • You’re looking at layers of knowledge and interpretation that break down this idea of memory as a pure truth
  • In terms of the artwork I am looking at, it’s really a case of applying these philosophical positions to the images
    • Why are you showing us these photographs – what do they function as?
    • Include more examples of the photographers work
  • The landscape in a European context is almost like a photograph, it’s removed from us, it’s observed like the photograph (from Simon Schama)
  • Remove the blank slides – people can multi-task
  • In terms of visual aids, you could just show an image of the landscape
    • As long as it is given context through what you’re saying at the time
    • You use an image like you use a quote, it solidifies and evidences what you’re saying
    • An image is like a gift to a visual audience – it helps break up the philosophical theory that you’re presenting to them
  • There are other philosophical positions that you can put out there
  • Even when the initial memory is construed, when you’re there in the present having this experience, how you’re interpreting that information is so different to someone stood next to you
  • Think about all of these points when you re-read your draft – where can you play the devils advocate?
    • Read it like it’s not your writing and like you’re marking it
  • Looking at the title:
    • Look through the books that your accessing and you may find some really poetic sentence or phrase that you can use as your title – just switch word around and make it appropriate for your work
    • I’m not so sure that you’re dealing with remembrance
      • I think what you’re talking about is more like a mediation – the way that photography can map out or locate the traces of the past
    • Do a bit of a mind-map – look into the words that you’re exploring and put them together in a poetic way

 

After receiving this feedback, I’m going to take time to watch Robert Macfarlane’s video that Kate suggested as further research, and then I will move on to look through my most recent draft and add the sections that she suggested within this tutorial session.

 


 

Brief Research into Robert Macfarlane’s “Landscape and the Human Heart” (IQ2 Talks) from the Second One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan:

As stated above, I decided to take time to listen to Robert Macfarlane’s talk on “Landscape and the Human Heart”. Whilst listening to this talk, I took notes, and noticed that a couple of the quotes that I pulled relate to some of the philosophical ideas discussed in the “Second One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan“. These can be found below along with a brief reflection:

  • “Psychological landscapes – internalized the landscapes”
    • This would be a good term to use within the essay as it shows a clear connection to landscapes in the real world and landscapes in an individuals memory
  • “Everyone thinks in landscape and with landscape… you have all been shaped by places, by phenomena experienced and recollected.”
    • This can, again, link to the idea of connection between landscapes in the real world and the landscape in an individuals memory
    • It is suggesting that everyone has been shaped by places and that places form experiences that can be recalled and remembered in the form of memories
  • “Places give form to your memories and textures to your experience.”
    • This is suggesting that places texture your experiences by giving providing it with a context in association to place, and, therefore, creates form within an individuals memories as it is this association with the place/landscape that we can use as a memory trigger to recall the memory
    • “Texture” is the context of the experience
    • “Form” is the association of the landscape allowing the memory to be recalled
  • “We’re shaped by landscape both in the moment and in the memory”
    • This greatly links to the idea that the past is in the present (discussed above in “Second One-to-One with Kate McMillan“) and suggests that landscapes are mediator between the present experience and the past memory

 


 

Finalising my Essay – A Question for Kate:

After I attended the “Second One-to-One Tutorial with Kate McMillan” on 20th January 2015, I then spent time looking through my essay and trying to decide where I could incorporate the ideas and theories suggested. After a lot of structural reconfiguration, I managed to find the appropriate areas within my essay where I could include these suggested sections (please view my “350MC Working with photography in Context: Writing the Essay” post for PDF previews of my structural changes throughout the writing process). However, there was one idea that she mentioned that I thought was relatively difficult to include so I decided to email her asking for more information about the question. Below you will therefore find the email exchange that occurred, followed by my next steps:

 

My email to Kate McMillan:

Hi Kate,

I’ve just got a quick question about my symposium essay to run past you… Looking back at the feedback you provided me, I think I have managed to include everything you suggested apart from the section regarding the construction of the idea of landscapes (included below):

“Is landscape immutable? I would argue that it is not. Consider the construction of the idea of landscape – a culturally formulated idea. Consider the different cultural perspectives of landscape – Chinese, Indigenous, European. ‘Landscape’ is a falsehood in many ways.​”

Is this a problem that I haven’t included it within my essay? And if it is, would you possibly be able to help me with explain how I could possibly incorporate it?

Your help would be greatly appreciated!

Thanks,

Holly

 

Kate McMillan’s Reply:

Hi Holly,

It is just about giving a nod to knowing that you understand ‘landscape’ is culturally relative and understood and interpreted in many different ways – for example how a first nation person might understand landscape as something they exist inside of, Europeans tend to understand it as something ‘viewed’ and separate. How you discuss landscape is particular to your traditions. I just did a quick search using the terms ‘cultural construction of landscape scholarly’ and a myriad of ideas/articles books came up – for example – http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/een/summary/v011/11.2plumwood.html

I think Schama probably refers to it to in his introduction.

See how you go and let me know if there are further queries.

Kate

 

Next Steps:

After receiving this response from Kate, my next step was to obviously thank her with how hopeful she was in explaining the concept she wanted me to include. I then decided to re-read the introduction to Simon Schama’s “Landscape and Memory in order to see if this section could provide me with relevant information about this concept. Although I found a couple of relevant sections within this introduction, that I am probably going to incorporate into my essay, I then decided to read through the article Kate sent me (The Concept of a Cultural Landscape: Nature, Culture and Agency of the Land” by Val Plumwood) in order to gain a wider understanding of this concept. Below you can find the areas from each reading material that I thought may be useful to consider:

Landscape and Memory” by Simon Schama:

  • “Not all cultures embrace nature and landscape myths with equal ardor, and those that do, go through periods of greater or lesser enthusiasm. What the myths of ancient forests mean for one European national tradition may translate into something entirely different in another. In Germany, for example, the forest primeval was the site of tribal self-assertion against the Roman empire of stone and law. In England, the greenwood was the place where the king disported his power in the royal hunt yet redressed the injustices of his officers.” – Page 15
  • “…Inherited landscape myths and memories share two common characteristics: their surprising endurance through the centuries and their power to shape institutions that we still live with.” – Page 15
  • “And landscapes can be self-consciously designed to express the virtues of a particular or social community” – Page 15
  • “For what I try to show in ‘Landscape and Memory’ is that the cultural habitats of humanity have always made room for the sacredness of nature” – Page 18

 

The Concept of a Cultural Landscape: Nature, Culture and Agency of the Land” by Val Plumwood:

  • As I was reading through this article, I found that, although it does talk about the theories that I need to include within my essay (how landscapes are “culturally relative”), it provided a much more complex and in-depth viewpoint on this theory, and used “intelligent” terminology which simply added to the complexity, making it rather difficult to comprehend
  • Once I had finished reading through this suggested article, I soon realized that it wouldn’t be very useful to include within my essay (as it went very much into depth on the topic) but that it could provide me with useful back-up points surrounding the theory that I could use if someone decided to ask me a question on the subject – I have therefore included the sections that I thought could be useful for preparing my answer to a possible question below:
    • The main theory – what I gathered from this article is that the main theories that discuss cultural landscapes either talks about landscapes with no human presence OR landscape made from human presence; it is rarely both
    • The concept of a cultural landscape currently so popular in the humanities is an example of a concept that invites us to downplay or hide nonhuman agency and to present humans as having a monopoly of creativity and agency in the generation of what are called ‘landscapes.’… This ‘two-cultures’ division of the field of knowledge into a culture-reductionist humanities versus a nature- reductionist science is a direct contemporary expression of the polarized and dualized choice of nature versus culture characteristic of western culture since classical times. As we will see, the concept of a cultural landscape is crucially linked to this reductionist agenda.” – Page 119-120
    • “…German geographer, Carl Sauer, defined the concept of the cultural landscape in its locus classicus, his 1925 work, The Morphology of Landscape, in these terms: “Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result. Under the influence of a given culture, itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases.”” – Page 121
    • Although recognition of cultural diversity is an important motivation for talk about cultural landscapes, concepts of the cultural landscape involve a subtle imposition of the dominant western model that posits a hegemonic, creative agent conceived as acting on an inert, passive field treated as instrument (or ‘medium’ in Sauer’s terms).” – Page 125
    • This form of culture reductionism suggests that cultural and natural heritage are largely separate and independent systems existing side by side, and that we can simply decide to favor the first over the second.” – Page 126
    • “Neither way can we adequately recognize the unique interwoven pattern of nature and culture which makes up the story of a place, and makes each place unique.” – Page 141

 

After gaining a greater understanding of this theory, I now plan on looking through my essay and determining the section in which I feel this idea would best fit (in a more basic sense), before preparing an answer to a possible question about the topic by using the more in-depth research.

 


 

Final Feedback from CAW (Centre of Academic Writing) and Tutors:

On Tuesday 3rd February 2015, we were set an internal deadline where we were expected to have completed a near enough final draft of both our Symposium essay and our presentation. This deadline was set in order to allow us time to gain final feedback from our tutors so that we could make some small last minute changes before taking part in the practice runs of our presentations the following week (Tuesday 10th February). This section therefore includes the feedback I received from both CAW (the Centre of Academic Writing – discussed in more detail below) and my tutors, Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan.

 

CAW (Centre of Academic Writing):

On Friday 30th January 2015, I decided to attend an appointment with CAW (the Centre of Academic Writing) in order to receive feedback on my essay prior to the internal “final” hand-in deadline the following Tuesday. This session was taken by Jacquie and started off with me explaining the concept of the Symposium (that we had to write an academic paper that would later be presented to an audience in a conference-like setting) before mentioning some aspects I thought I was struggling with (including my use of tenses and punctuation). Once gaining an understanding of the project itself and the problems I thought I was facing, Jacquie then got me to read out my essay (as a way of identifying my punctuation problems and to practice for my Symposium event), allowing her to suggest any changes as I read through it. I have included the scans of my essay (that includes the hand-written changes that were suggested throughout the session) below:

 

Once I had gone through my essay with Jacquie, she was very enthusiastic about the topic I was exploring and the written piece that I had created, so-much-so that she actually asked my permission to use the work as an example essay within future CAW training days and online samples (an example of the permission slip I signed can be found below – how could I say no to that?!)

Permission to Use Assignments

 

Tutors (Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan):

After I had attended the appointment with CAW, I then decided to send my most recent draft to both Anthony and Kate in order to receive feedback from them before the internal deadline. Unfortunately, as they are both very busy, I was told that my essay and presentation was looking good but that they would look over it in more detail after the hand-in date to fit in with their schedule. The feedback that I gained from each of the tutors, which I received at separate times, can be found below, along with a scanned copy of my essay and presentation with the changes they suggested:

 

Feedback from Anthony Luvera:

On Tuesday 3rd February 2015 (the date of or internal deadline), I attended a one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera where I took him through both my essay and presentation in order to gain feedback for my final draft. Prior to this meeting, I also sent Anthony an email with some questions regarding the visual presentation for my Symposium, which he replied saying that he would “like to address these questions and the drafts with you in class in person”. The initial email that I sent to him with the presentation questions and all of the feedback and suggested changes that I received from this one-to-one tutorial can be found below:

 

Email to Anthony:

Hi Anthony, 

Please find attached a very rough draft of my presentation (I will be making some changes to both my essay and my presentation on Monday once I am back from the Lake District this weekend!)

As always, I have a couple of questions regarding my presentation. 

  1. As you will see, I have included two slides that include an image of a pile of photos – as I have included them twice, should I try and find a different photo or is it okay to use it more than once?
  2. I’ve also left space to include some landscape images (examples have been placed in to remind me!) – I was wondering if I was able to use my own photographs or if you would suggest I use a mixture of personal, archived family and professional images of landscapes?
  3. The Mediatory Memory Pathways – these are still in their beginning stages, but once I finalise them, do you think they are okay to include in the presentation? I’ve had a look and couldn’t find any “professional” diagrams… And I promise they make a lot more sense with the accompanying essay!

I would really appreciate your help with these questions and I look forward to receiving feedback from my final draft of my essay (sent in a previous email).

Thanks,

Holly​

 

Going through the Essay:

A Pathway to the Past – Draft 16

  • You should include the first name of the theorists the first time that you mention them and then go on to using just their surname if they’re mentioned more than once
  • Don’t use “But” within the essay – it is not needed
  • Try experimenting with not using the first person (“I”) – however, you can use it if you’re using personal images within the presentation as they will anchor the point of using them (discussed below)
  • Get rid of “… and projects” when discussing landscape photographs after the introduction
  • Within the introduction, you need to discuss Ricoeur further – although the questions you pose do this slightly, you just need to tweak a couple of sentences (then go back to Ricoeur in the conclusion)
  • The conclusion needs to be cemented more with theoretical ideas and research – maybe go back to Ricoeur (or Barthes? – see below under Bibliography)

 

Going through the Presentation:

Presentation – Draft 3

  • Why have you included quotes?
    • My Answer – As this section of the essay discusses this question in more depth by relating to other theories, I thought it would be good to offer the viewer something visual to relate back to whilst I’m discussing these complicated ideas
  • You can go back to the same photo if you wish, as long as it fits with the section it accompanies in the essay (the answer to question one in the email above)
  • You can use your own photos as long as it serves the paper – you don’t want to use it as personal advertising, that’s not what the symposium is for (the answer to question two in the email above)
    • We’ll test to see if the photos fit during the dress rehearsals
  • The mediatory memory pathways are very well constructed and I agree that they are needed as visual representations for the complex idea you are discussing  (the answer to question three in the email above)
  • Don’t think you need the question of “Why have I focused this discussion solely on LANDSCAPE photographs as an example of traces of the past” – instead you could use your own image which then gives you the opportunity to use the first person (as discussed above)
  • For the second and third memory pathway diagrams, you need to make them more distinguishable – perhaps change the title of them so that the audience knows what they’re looking t is different

 

Going through the Bibliography:

Bibliography – Holly Constantine

  • Have you looked into Barthes? Specifically Barthes’ Punctum? His ideas link into this discussion on emotional connections to photographs, even though he does focus primarily on portraits
    •  My Answer – I have definitely looked into Barthes’ theory on Punctum (including his “new punctum” of Time) throughout my research, by reading his book “Camera Lucida” as well as the book “Photography Degree Zero: Reflections on Roland Barthes’s Camera Lucida” that was edited by Geoffrey Batchen
    • Although I do agree that his theory on Punctum could relate to my essay, I also feel that, due to the fact I am very conscious about time/word limits there are so many other theories that I should include that are slightly more relevant to the ideas I am discussing
    • However, if I find that I have enough time/space to include this theory I will, but if not, I am planning on preparing answers to possible questions that may arise regarding my presentation, during the Symposium event, and I will therefore prepare an answer to a question that may mention his theories

 

Feedback from Kate McMillan:

On Wednesday 4th February 2015, I received an email from Kate McMillan that contained feedback for my final Symposium essay. After reading the email, I expressed some slight confusion in the feedback I received, which resulted in us arranging to have a phone call one-to-one the next morning. Below you will find a copy of the email that she sent me, a video of the recorded phone call, and the notes that I made from the phone call:

 

Email from Kate McMillan:

Hi Holly,

Please find attached your marked up draft. There are some nice points in there and I think the project is interesting. There are a few things that need clarifying/re-ordering/considering. You should be able to cut out a few bits here and there that have been repeated to fit in the following.

  1. You need to be clear about the kind of memory you are interested in – this is a very broad area of research. if it specifically reverie, then this needs to be articulated from the opening paragraphs. The case studies also need to be discussed in those terms.
  2. It will be helpful to define how memory functions in this context right at the beginning prior to discussing the works.
  3. How does photography and theories of photography attend to memory in ways other memory triggers don’t? What are the qualities of photography in this respect? You might need to discuss the context – how do we use photography in this way, where is it situated in our lives as part of the detritus of remembering?

Avoid personal pronouns where possible and tease out some of the ambiguities I have highlighted in the attached document. Almost there!

Let me know if anything is unclear.

Kind regards

Kate

 

Recorded Phone Call:

Phone Call One-to-One with Kate McMillan from Holly Constantine on Vimeo.

 

Notes from Phone Call:

  • You seem to have skimmed over a whole bunch of interesting things but what’s there is the real depth – I know it’s difficult to do in 10 minutes
  • You need to make those punchy, key, insightful comments that evidence the depth of knowledge you have of the field
  • Reverie memories need to be included in the opening paragraph – for example: “This paper will explore the relationship between reverie memories and its role with the landscape photograph.
    • You need to be really explicit right from the outset
    • If you do this, the audience will start to understand the relationship between the theories and the statement
    • If you don’t provide the context until later on, some of the key connections have already been lost
  • Don’t use personal pronouns such as “us”, “our”, “we” – instead say something like: “Over time memories begin to fade and appear to travel down the route of the forgotten. Photographs, however, provide the viewer with a distorted representation of past events, there are moments in the artists lives when these personal, fragmented memories could provide the viewer with a comforting form of psychological escapism
    • This makes you sound removed whereas the use of personal pronouns makes it sound like your bias and generalizing your opinion
    • Use things like “the artist”, “the viewer”, “the audience”, “the research”, “the examination”, etc.
    • Go through the whole essay and change this
  • You need to be explicit in the opening paragraph – for example: “This research will examine the way in which the photograph of a landscape can reconnect us to lost people that no longer exist in the present.
    • Once you’ve very clearly defined that, you can then very explicitly talk about how that occurs
  • I suggest after that first paragraph that you actually talk about the way that memory might function
    • You have sort of done that but I want to understand a bit more about how memory operates
    • Have a broader discussion about how memory operates, then narrow it into how the photograph and memory begin to operate
    • You should talk about what memory is – the position the photograph in relation to that, so how does photography assist memory? – Specifically look at this then move on to the discussion of specific case studies
  • With the case studies, you need define the project more so – what was her process, what did she do? Tell a story then discuss it’s relation to memory
    • You shouldn’t need to go into too much detail about the memory theories when discussing the projects as this should already have been clearly mentioned previously
  • You need to go through your work and cut – you repeat yourself a couple of times; you need to say one thing once and well
    • You can reinforce these ideas by including them on your PowerPoint as well as that way the viewer will remember them better as they have not only been heard, but also seen
  • I think it’s just about defining exactly what your doing – it needs to have clear, unambiguous, perfectly formed sentences
  • You need to summaries what memory is – you’ve read widely so just distil quotes, moments and reflections on those things

 

Scan of Essay and Presentation with Changes:

Below you will find a scanned copy of my essay and presentation with the changes suggested by Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan. All of the changes that Anthony suggested can be found in blue ink, whereas all the changes that Kate suggested can be found in purple ink:

Scan of Essay with Changes:

 

Scan of Presentation with Changes:

 

Now that I have received feedback from both of my tutors (Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan, as well as CAW (the Centre of Academic Writing) I now plan on making the suggested changes to them, before the 10th February 2015, where we will be going through some practice runs of our presentation.

 


 

Essay and Presentation for the Practice Run (Tuesday 10th February 2015):

Below you can find a PDF version of my essay and presentation (with all of the suggested changes) that I plan on using as my practice run on Tuesday 10th February 2015:

A Pathway to the Past – Draft 20

Presentation – Draft 4

 


 

Final, FINAL Feedback from Course Peers and Tutors:

As you may have seen, on Tuesday 10th February 2015, I attended a day of lectures dedicated to the 350MC Symposium module where we were split into two groups (Day One and Day Two) before practicing our presentations in the running order that is planned for the event days. Once we had completed our presentation, we then received feedback from our course peers. Unfortunately, as only Anthony Luvera was available for this day, he had to divide his time up between the two sessions, making so that only a couple of people were able to gain feedback from him. Below you will therefore be able to find the essay and the presentation I presented on the day, along with the feedback I received from my course peers during this session, and the feedback I asked to gain from the tutors (Anthony Luvera and Kate McMillan) via a one-to-one tutorial with Anthony:

A Pathway to the Past – Draft 20

Presentation – Draft 4

 

Feedback from Course Peers:

  • My presentation was 11 minutes and 57 seconds
    • You may need to cut this down but you may have to speak to Anthony and Kate to gain suggestions as to how to do that
  • We don’t think you need to include the ideas to do with the acoustic, semantic and visual information stored within the brain as we don’t think that this is necessarily relevant
  • You may want to discuss the idea of the emotional attachment to the “lost loved one” in relation to the memory and different memory triggers – it play a huge role in the sense of remembrance
  • Towards the end, you need to make the question “So, how do people reconnect to individuals in the past?” much clearer – maybe include deceased individual, or lost loved one?
  • In terms of your presentation skills:
    • You need to speak a lot slower – If you need to speak slower, you will definitely have to cut some information out in order to fit in the allotted time slots
    • Don’t fidget – this may be helped through the use of a lectern as you will be able to hold on to it for support to stop yourself from fidgeting
    • (General feedback for the whole group) – don’t just read your essay, but present it, make sure you look at the audience; this will be learnt through practicing your presentation over and over again

 

Feedback from Anthony Luvera (One-to-One Tutorial):

On Wednesday 11th February 2015, I had a one-to-one tutorial with Anthony Luvera in order to discuss the idea of receiving feedback. Within this one-to-one tutorial, Anthony explained that both he and Kate had given me sufficient feedback resulting in the creation of a very strong piece of writing, so-much-so that they feel they do not need to offer me anymore help and advice.

Instead, Anthony suggested that this is in fact my own piece of work and that I now need to take in all of the feedback and information I have received over the module to make any small, final changes that I feel will help to create a better piece of writing.

However, within this quick one-to-one tutorial, Anthony did take the time to ask me if I needed anything in particular looking over and, after receiving the feedback above (that it was a very strong piece) I said that I didn’t think I did because I know roughly where I want to change it. However, I did quickly ask about my worry of time limits as I said that my 2000 word essay is approximately a 12 minute presentation (rather than the 10 minutes we were given) and he replied with the fact that he thought this shouldn’t matter too much as we have allowed “buffering-time” within each of the speeches through the organization of the Symposium event.

 

After this one-to-one tutorial I had with Anthony, I am now planning on making the appropriate changes suggested by my course peers, and any that I feel will help to create a strong written piece, in order to create my second-to-last essay for the symposium event, ready for the dress rehearsal the following week.

 


 

Dress Rehearsal – FINAL, FINAL, FINAL Feedback:

As you may have seen, on Tuesday 17th and Wednesday 18th February 2015, I attended two days of lectures dedicated to the 350MC Symposium module (which replaced our usual Wednesday lectures for the 352MC Final Major Project module). During these two days, we took the time to run through the schedule for the Symposium event, which will be taking place the following week, allowing us to rehearse our presentations, gain final feedback, and make any last minute changes before the Collective Vision event. Below you will find a copy of the running order for the Symposium, my script and presentation that I presented on the Wednesday, a recording of my run-through, and any general and personal feedback I gained throughout the two day session:

Symposium Schedule

A Pathway to the Past – Holly Constantine SCRIPT

A Pathway to the Past – Holly Constantine

 

Dress Rehearsal – Presentation and Feedback:

Dress Rehearsal: Presentation and Feedback for the Collective Vision Symposium from Holly Constantine on Vimeo.

Unfortunately, as you may be able to tell, the space on the memory card of the audio recording device ran out towards the end of my talk. However, luckily, some of my course peers noticed this and manage to record the audio of the feedback session on their phones for my reflective benefit. I therefore apologize about the quality of the video.

 

General Feedback:

  • The first image and the last image are the images the audience will remember from the talk so make sure that they are strong
  • Quotes in a presentation are more useful in longer lectures (of about an hour) so you should maybe reconsider the use of them

 

Personal Feedback:

  • This presentation was a very technical piece of writing and it evidenced the wide range of research you underwent throughout this module – It was very diligently researched and very well structured
    • However, because of this, for the first half of your presentation, I couldn’t necessarily tell that it was a photography presentation
    • So what I would say is that although it showed really good research, I think that you should illustrate it with the inclusion of more photographs
      • Not necessarily your own (which can be used a couple of times within the presentation) but I think you should use a number of examples to show how diverse landscape photography is
    • An example would be when you say “photographs of landscapes can act as memory triggers”, perhaps show an image of a landscape that is a personal memory trigger for you
    • You should use images so that the audience can look at them so that they illustrate the ideas that are resounding in the audiences mind
      • This will also focus the presentation more on photography
  • I think the diagrams are very difficult to process in such a short period of time
    • Not sure you need the diagram slides and the quote slides because I feel your explanations are really clear – you’re language is clear enough, it makes sense
  • I’m also not sure about that question slide
    • I think you should just tinker with that section a little bit – the question is so broad and it doesn’t just relate to your topic
      • It feels kind of “left-field” – it relates, of course, but maybe don’t use the slide to add the emphasis on it
      • Just think about the question and how it relates to what you are talking about
  • The title also needs to be reconsidered
    • Because it is such a technical paper, the poetic-ness of he title doesn’t really fit
    • The alliteration also adds to the cheesiness of the title which takes away from the technicality of the paper
    • Your paper is essentially about landscape photography and memory – play around with that
  • However (as suggested by my course peers and tutors), your presentation skills are very professional

 

After gaining this feedback from Anthony Luvera, Daniel Campbell Blight and my course peers, I now plan on making these slight changes in order to create the absolute final piece to be presented at the Collective Vision Symposium in less than a week.

 


 

Final Essay and Presentation:

After making the suggested changes to both my essay and my presentation (as suggested by CAW, Anthony Luvera, Kate McMillan, Daniel Campbell Blight and my Course Peers), I have now created the final versions that I will be presenting at the Symposium event. These have been included below as PDF formats:

Essay – Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory – Holly Constantine

Presentation – Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory Presentation – Holly Constantine FINAL

Between now and the symposium, I am now going to take the time to practice my presentation as well as preparing some answers to possible questions that I may be asked, regarding my essay and my research, at the Symposium event.

 


 

Preparing Answers to Possible Questions:

As stated above, once I had completed my final drafts of both my essay and my presentation, I then planned to take time preparing some answers to possible questions that I may be asked after my presentation at the Symposium event. Below you will find some example questions that I am expecting I may receive (due to the fact that the theories they discuss have only been briefly mentioned within my essay), as well as some questions that came up on the first day of the Symposium event, and some bullet-pointed answers in order to help me remember and practice them before the event:

What’s this presentation about in one sentence?

  • It’s about using landscape photographs as memory triggers to reconnect people to the reverie memories of someone that they have lost 

What exactly are reverie memories?

  • Reverie memories are a type of long-term memory that are often described as psychological episodes of memory
  • To understand this concept further, we need to look into definitions surrounding “reverie”
  • Reverie is defined as:
    • “A state of dreaming while awake” or “a daydream”
    • “The condition of being lost in a thought”
    • “A state where you are thinking about pleasant things”
  • Now, if you take these definitions of reverie and apply them to “reverie memories”, reverie memories are simply long-term memories that, once recollected, allow individuals to “drift back” (through the act of daydreaming or being lost in thought) to a remembered (pleasant) past experience or event
  • (They are classed as long-term memories, because short-term memories are not stored for a long enough period to allow individuals to dream or drift back to them)

What classes as a reverie memory?

  • Reverie memories could include a vast number of experiences, but as suggested in my presentation, they are mainly associated with pleasant experiences that hold a strong emotional attachment
    • An example of a reverie memory is therefore a memory that includes a particular past event that an individual fondly remembers as it is emotionally attached to, say, a particular person or place
    • One of my own, personal reverie memories, for example, is where I can drift back to the dining room of a little cottage in the Langdales (in the Lake District) where I can hear my Grandpa in the kitchen, washing up, singing a Nat King Cole song to himself
      • I drift back to this particular place because I have associated the memory with the emotional attachment I have with my now deceased Grandpa

In the definition of reverie, you said that it is where the consciousness can slip back to a more dreamlike state, but then went on to say that long-term memories (including reverie memories) are stored in the preconsiousness. I’m confused.

  • It is our consciousness that recognizes a present memory trigger that allows the mind to travel through the preconsiousness to the altered memory
  • Remember, a reverie memory is not a type of memory in itself but is instead and episode of memory
  • It is therefore the act of travelling from the consciousness through the preconsiousness that is the act of “drifting back” which results in the recollection of the remembered spaces, events, and feelings which our in our minds

What do you mean by altered or fragmented memories?

  • I was actually going to include a section in my presentation dedicated solely to the idea of altered and fragmented memories, but I soon realized that this is a whole other essay in itself!
  • When looking at altered memories:
    • What I mean by this phrase is that memories are never recollected in a pure form – they are remembered differently to how the event actually took place
    • This is because the individuals imagination has the ability to change and alter the memories to create “false memories”
      • An example of this is that the individual’s imagination could merge two different memories from separate past experiences to create one new memory, and the individual can still feel certain that they remember this fabricated version of the event
    • I think that Siegfried Kracauer described this idea best by suggesting that memories are time-conditioned truths:
      • They are events that have happened in the past, and the truth of the event is adapted over time, either through the use of the individual’s imagination or through the fading of the memory as it is stored deeper in the preconsiousness where it awaits to be remembered in fragments and snippets
    • When looking at fragmented memories:
      • As you’ve seen in my presentation, when an individual is presented with a memory trigger, they do not simply recollect the whole memory at once
      • Their mind works through stored, associated information, as it progresses down the memory pathway, pulling out different fragments of the memory into the individual’s consciousness in order recollect a created, fragmented memory
      • In a way it is like a jigsaw puzzle, the mind pulls out different pieces of the memory (made of the associated information) and places them together to form an unfinished memory jigsaw

You mentioned the phrase “memory systems” a couple of times. What are these memory systems?

  • Memory systems usually refer to the sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
    • Sensory memory is the initial momentary storage of information lasting only an instant
    • Short-term memory holds limited amount of information for relatively a short period of time
    • Long-term memory stores large amount of information over a long period of time
  • As I was focusing primarily on long-term memories, this essay therefore looked at Freudian memory systems which are the consciousness, preconsciousness and unconsciousness
    • Long-term memories are stored in the preconscious and can be recollected into the consciousness through the recognition of memory triggers
  • So how does the unconsciousness relate to memories?
    • At the beginning of the talk, I quote Paul Ricoeur who said that most memories have not been definitely erased but simply rendered inaccessible
    • I would therefore say that the unconscious therefore holds this small percentage of memory that has in fact been definitely erased and that the preconscious holds all the other long-term memories that can be recollected

You said that long-term memories have memory triggers, but what about short-term memories? How are they recollected?

  • Short-term memories have a limited capacity and can usually only hold seven items for no more than 20 or 30 seconds at a time
  • Short-term memories therefore don’t require a memory trigger as, because they are only stored for a short period of time, they are stored within the consciousness (rather than the preconsiousness)
  • This means that they do not need a memory trigger to be recalled back into the consciousness as they are already there
  • An example of this is if we look at a short-term memory exercise where an individual is asked to remember a certain amount of digits, although they have been asked to do this, this is not a memory trigger as the short-term information is still in an individuals consciousness for this short period of time

You said that memory triggers have to be recognized and repeated to allow the individual to undergo independent recollection. Can you elaborate?

  • Repetition is one of recollection’s primary characteristics and this theory relates to Edward Casey’s theory of the “Mnemonic Modes” where he discussed aspects of recognizing, reminding, and reminiscing
  • Focusing mainly on recognizing and reminding, Paul Ricoeur suggested that there is a relationship between these two functions and memory triggers
    • He suggests that recognition is where an individual recognizes a present memory trigger that relates back to the past memory
    • So, reminding and recognizing are connected in terms of mnemonic functions as the act of RECOGNIZING a present memory trigger REMINDS the individual of the once inaccessible memory that results in the independent recollection of the memory
  • In relation to repetition, an individual therefore experiences repetition when they recognize a present memory trigger (that has also been experienced in the past) that reminds them of particular memories

You mentioned the phrase “representational memory triggers” quite a bit. What do you mean by this?

  • As I said in the essay, memory triggers are usually present object/items that have been experienced in the past and are therefore associated with a past event
  • It is very rare that this memory trigger remains exactly the same now, as it did in the past (for example, landscape can change over time) so they therefore act as a representation of the object/item that was experience in the past, at the time the memory was created

You mentioned that landscapes are concepts of cultural relativity? What did you mean by that?

  • This idea has been discussed by many theorists over the years (including Simon Schama in his book “Landscape and Memory” and a thesis by Val Plumwood) and it is basically suggesting that landscapes are interpreted in a number of different ways depending on the culture that is encountering it
  • For example:
    • European’s mainly understand the landscape as something that is observed – they view it and are separate from the landscape
    • First Nation individuals (for example, Canadian Aboriginals) may understand landscapes as something they exist inside of

You mentioned the mnemonic strategy of “The Method of Loci”. Can you explain this technique to me please?

  • As said in my presentation, it is based on the assumption that individuals best remember memories/objects through their association with different places
  • This method is particularly practiced for the act of remembrance in the near future
  • Using an example of a shopping list, it works something like this:
    • Individual thinks of a place they know well (for example, their home)
    • They visualize a series of locations in this place (for example, different rooms, such as living room, ding room etc.), in a logical order
    • They place each item that needs to be remembered in one of these locations/rooms (for example, and apple in the kitchen)
    • When the individual wants to remember these items, they need to visualize the room and the objects associated with these locations should spring to mind
  • So how is this related to memories?
    • As suggested in my presentation, it is the idea behind this method that links to memories – the generalized premise that individuals best remember memories/objects through their association with different places

Your presentation is obviously based on memory, but I was just wondering why you haven’t talked about Proust, one of the leading theorists on the subject?

  • As he is very well known for his theories on memories, as a part of my research I obviously looked into Proust’s theories, and I actually included him within one of my previous drafts
  • I was particularly interested in his “episode of the madeleine” where he identified involuntary memories (memories that are recollected through the introduction to a memory trigger, without conscious effort)
    • (For those that don’t know this story, in summary, Proust held a single memory about a particular place called Combray, until, years later he tasted a madeleine cake (that had been dipped in tea) which triggered the recollection of more memories about Combray and his childhood there)
  • However, I chose not to include him within this particular presentation, as I was conscious of the time limit that I had and realized that his quote I used within one of my drafts simply repeated the theory I had already discussed

I couldn’t help but think that this project greatly related to Barthes theories on studium and punctum, do you agree? If so, why haven’t you included them within your presentation?

  • As you know:
    • Studium is the interpretation of a photograph that creates interest in the viewer, which allows the viewer to like the image, not love it (that is the punctum)
    • Punctum is the direct relationship between the personally touching and “wounding”/“pricking” ability of the photograph and the object or person shown within the image – it is the aspect that allows the viewer to love an image due to personal reasons
  • I do completely agree that the theories discussed within my presentation relate to Barthes theory of Punctum
    • The landscape photograph memory triggers I discussed can provide individuals with this personally touching concept as they are able to trigger the process of recollection of these personal past memories – the viewer loves the image due to the personal, emotional reasons attached to it
  • However, although I feel that this is the case, due to the fact that it was only a 10 minute presentation about such a broad subject, I soon found that it was difficult to include all of the theories I wanted to include
    • I therefore had to make the conscious decision to exclude particular theories from my presentation (including this one) and cover it during the question and answer session if it was raised

Listening to your presentation, I thought that there was an underlying theme of death photography and I was wondering why you hadn’t included this within your presentation.

  • Within the early development stages of this presentation, when I was merely discussing the themes I was looking at exploring, it was suggested that I was perhaps looking into Death Photography through the idea of photographs functioning as a form of remembrance through the depicting of dead people
  • When this was suggested, I then decided to research further into this topic which included:
    • Books (such as Ulrich Baer’s “Spectral Evidence: The Photography of Trauma”)
    • Podcasts (including “Death and the Contemporary”)
    • And photographers (for example David Farrell’s “Innocent Landscapes” and work by Paul Seawright)
  • However, as I continued with the development of my project, I soon realized that my main interest was in the memory of these individuals and how these memories could be accessed through the use of (landscape) photographs – rather than the use of (landscape) photography to depict/represent dead people in numerous ways
    • I do completely agree that it is a form of an underlying topic within my presentation though

Are there any theories that you didn’t include within your presentation, which you wished you had?

  • Although I am very pleased with the final essay that I presented to you today, I do feel that there is one theory that relates to the underlying theme of personal (landscape) photographs that I should have mentioned (if only in passing)
  • This is Barthes Punctum:
    • Punctum is the direct relationship between the personally touching and “wounding”/“pricking” ability of the photograph and the object or person shown within the image – it is the aspect that allows the viewer to love an image due to personal reasons
    • The landscape photograph memory triggers I discussed can provide individuals with this personally touching concept as they are able to trigger the process of recollection of these personal past memories – the viewer loves the image due to the personal, emotional reasons attached to it

When looking at Ann Chwatsky and Mikael Levin, you mentioned that they deviated away from using landscape photographs as memory triggers, so why have you included them?

  • As this topic is psychology based, I struggled to find a working practitioner that had created a body of work that investigated the more specific idea of using landscape photographs as memory triggers
  • However, when researching into these two particular artists, I soon found that their projects explored the overarching themes of my presentation which included landscapes and memories
  • Upon further research into these case studies, as my paper was developing, I also found that each project greatly related to some of the more specific memory theories discussed within the essay
    • They therefore expand on some of these more complex theories by placing them into photographic context whilst also offering visual examples that can be used as aids for the understanding of the theory

You mentioned that Ann Chwatsky used landscapes as an expressive tool through the notion of conceptual self-portraiture. Can you explain this to me?

  • As a methodology conceptual photography is a type of photography that is staged to represent an idea
  • She therefore explores the idea of self-portraiture by creating montage images (from some of her own photographs) to represent personal memories (which is the aspect of the “self”)
  • Although she doesn’t include her face in the images, it relates to portraiture as she displays the expression, personality, and mood of the subject (herself) – it is argued that portraits don’t need to capture an individuals face as long as they show a representation of the individual 
  • She was also very interested in landscape and wondered how she could integrate people into her landscape so challenged herself to see if she could use landscape photography as a way of expressing the feelings of the self – taken from an interview with Jacqueline Bishop

When looking at Ann Chwatsky’s photographs, I noticed that they were representing very deep and dark memories of hers. Now, at the beginning of your presentation you said that reverie memories are associated with pleasant and positive emotional attachments, so how does her work relate to reverie memories?

  • Well I actually said that reverie memories are USUALLY associated with pleasant past experiences, because this can be easily disputed
  • What I mean by this is that individuals can still experience a sense of “drifting back” to an episode of reverie that is associated with a more negative past event
  • However, although some of Chwatsky’s memories can be seen as negative (for example, her tears turned into a pond), she is still exploring this dreamlike state where she drifts back to the spaces, events, and in particular, the feelings that are in her mind

As this presentation is mainly based on the idea of remembering reverie memories, I was just wondering if you could elaborate on how Mikael Levin’s work looked into these types of memory.

  • As I said in the presentation, Levin used this project as an opportunity to use and adopt his fathers landscape memory triggers in order to explore whether landscapes hold memories or traces of the past
  • Now, although Levin is essentially exploring the locations of some of his fathers memories, and that these memories may not have been categorized as episodes of reverie, through encountering similar locations (and therefore similar sensory inputs), Levin was able to experience a sense of reverie as the location supplied him with relevant information to allow him to imagine and “drift back” to his fathers past journey
  • By completing this project, Levin was also able to create some of his own (reverie) memories which, when looking back at the project in the future, will allow him to “drift back” to the creation of the project

As this essay is essentially talking about memory and photography, I couldn’t help but think about the work of Idris Kahn. Are you familiar with his work? What are your thoughts on it?

  • Yes – I am familiar with his work
    • As he investigates memory, creativity and the layering of experience I actually looked at his work in the early stages of my development for this presentation, as a possible case study to use
    • In these early, developmental stages, I was considering including a section within my essay discussing the ideas of changed and altered memories and it’s relation to an individual’s imagination (but as I soon found out, this is actually a whole other essay in itself!)
    • I therefore thought that his work could illustrate some of the main points surrounding this broad concept through his photographic methodology (of creating, erasing and adding new layers to already existing traces)
      • The creating, erasing and adding of new layers could represent the fading and changing process that memories can undergo
    • However, as I continued with the development of my presentation, I then came across Mikael Levin’s work and thought that it was more appropriate to discuss in conjunction with the main theories I was planning on looking at

Did you look at any other case studies throughout the development of your project? If so, who? And why didn’t you use them?

  • I looked at lots of different people for case studies including:
    • Paul Seawright
    • David Farrell
    • Tom Hunter
    • Idris Khan
    • A few sculptors like David Hammons
  • These were obviously looked at towards the earlier stages of my development and there are numerous reasons why I didn’t use them
    • Some of them looked more into the idea of death photography (Paul Seawright, David Farrell and Tom Hunter) and photographed the landscape in such a way that depicted dead people by photographing the area in which someone had died
      • However, my main interest was in the memory of these individuals and how these memories could be accessed through the use of (landscape) photographs – not how to represent them within a landscape photograph
    • Idris Khan did look into the ideas of memory, and I was seriously considering using him as a case study
      • I originally considered including a section in my talk regarding changed and altered memories – but I soon realized this is a whole other essay in itself!
      • His methodology of work would have greatly fit into this section as he creates, erases, and adds new layers to existing traces
        • The creating, erasing and adding of new layers could represent the fading and changing process that memories can undergo
    •  I also cam across some sculptors and artists (including David Hammons) in some of my resources and decided to do some brief research into them
      • Now, although they all looked into the idea of memory in some way or another, this was at the stage where I had decided to look into landscape photographs as memory triggers and, as they were sculptors, they obviously didn’t fit into this topic

You say that this presentation focuses on landscape photography, but some of your photos included different places. Can you explain this to me?

  • The definition of landscape photography is as follows:
    • Landscape photography shows spaces within the world, sometimes vast and unending, but other times microscopic
    • Landscape photographs typically capture the presence of nature but can also focus on man-made features or disturbances of landscapes

As your presentation was so psychology based and covered a lot of complex theories, I think it would have been nice to have seen more visual aids in the sense of diagrams. Can I ask why you decided not to do this?

  • I originally chose to incorporate a number of diagrams (including the stages of memory, creating and encoding the memory, and memory pathways), but as I recently noticed during a dress rehearsal, having a very dense, academic paper, accompanied by a relatively technical presentation made the overall talk feel rather intense
  • Because of the structure of my talk as well, this more academic presentation draft therefore looked as though it was a psychology talk rather than a photography talk as photographs weren’t introduced until about half way through (originally)
  • I therefore decided to remove the diagrams and replace them with landscape photographs, in order to decrease the intensity of the presentation whilst also providing the audience with the opportunity to apply the discussed theories to the landscape photographs shown (creating a more active viewing of the presentation)

Looking at your visual presentation, I was just wondering why you used a variety of landscape photographs rather than your own images to illustrate certain points (especially as it is to do with such a personal topic)?

  • Well, as it is such a dense, academic paper, I recently realized that a use of a wide range of photographs will offer the viewer a form of escape from the pure technicality of the talk
  • I did take time considering the type of landscape images to use as I originally thought that it would be more appropriate to use my own images to illustrate such a personal topic of memory
  • However, I decided to use a range of photographs (from different people) in order to provide examples of the diversity of landscape photography as well as representing the fact that, although memory is a personal topic, many individuals can use landscape images as memory triggers
    • I’m sure the photographers that took the images can use these pieces of work to “drift back” to when they took the photo!
  • I also took a lot of time considering each individual photograph as I wanted them to symbolize key phrases within the paragraph that they were illustrating

Why have you decided to look at this topic? – Question that came up on the first day of the Symposium

  • For my FMP, I have decided that I want to explore the idea of reconnecting to my deceased Grandpa by visiting places in the Lake District where we shared certain memories
    • Which obviously links to the idea of landscapes (and landscape photographs) acting as memory triggers
  • I therefore wanted to link my Symposium with my FMP as I was obviously very interested in the topic and thought that the research that I put towards (and apply) the Symposium could also help me to create a more contextualized FMP

How is you research for the Symposium going to affect your practice? – Question that came up on the first day of the Symposium

  • As I am looking at the idea of using landscape photographs as memory triggers, I feel that this relates more to the idea of looking into archives rather than the physical creation or methodology of a project
  • However, for my FMP I have decided that I want to explore the idea of reconnecting to my deceased Grandpa by visiting places in the Lake District where we shared certain memories
    • Which obviously links to the idea of landscapes (and landscape photographs) acting as memory triggers
  • The research that I have undergone throughout the development of this Symposium has therefore provided me with a lot of information that I will be able to apply to my FMP – helping me to create a more contextualized FMP
    • This research includes theories on memories, how the subjective idea of memory can become more accessible to the viewers through the use of text, etc.

 


 

The Symposium Event – My Presentation:

On Tuesday 24th and Wednesday 25th February 2015, the graduating class of 2015 all took part in the two-day Symposium Event that we had organized in order to present our papers from the 350MC Working with Photography in Context module. The event, that was held at the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, was incredibly successful and resulted in a majority of the contributing practitioners walking away feeling accomplished and proud of taking part in such an event.

My presentation was held on Day 2 of the Symposium Event at 14:40 (second to last of all of the speakers over the two-days), and was categorized under the section of “Photography and Place”. Below you will find a scanned copy of the programme we provided our guests with, as well as a video of my presentation and the following question and answer session.

Remembrance: Landscape Photography and Memory by Holly Constantine – Collective Vision Symposium from Holly Constantine on Vimeo.

In order to see my definitive blog post for the 350MC Working with Photography in Context module, which includes my final script along with a reflection on the event and the developmental research process of the 6-month module, please visit my blog post “350MC Working with Photography in Context – Definitive Blog Post” at https://hollyconstantinephotography.wordpress.com/2015/03/01/350mc-working-with-photography-in-context-definitive-blog-post/.

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